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1. General Neurological complaints:

headache, dizziness, extreme irritation, shaking in the hands, speaking falteringly, forgetfulness, neuro-psychological discomfort, increase in the carelessness, decrease of the reflex, fatigue, tension, sleep disturbance, ear ache and clicking sound in the ears




Al-Khlaiwi T, Meo SA. Association of mobile phone radiation with fatigue, headache, dizziness, tension and sleep disturbance in Saudi population. Saudi Med J. 25(6):732-736, 2004.

OBJECTIVE: The widespread use of mobile phones has been increased over the past decade; they are now an essential part of business, commerce and society. The use of mobile phones can cause health problems. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to investigate the association of using mobile phones with fatigue, headache, dizziness, tension and sleep disturbance in the Saudi population and provide health and social awareness in using these devices. METHODS: This study was conducted in the Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the year 2002 to 2003. In the present study, a total of 437 subjects (55.1% male and 39.9% female) were invited, they have and had been using mobile phones. A questionnaire was distributed regarding detailed history and association of mobile phones with health hazards. RESULTS: The results of the present study showed an association between the use of mobile phones and health hazards. The overall mean percentage for these clinical findings in all groups were headache (21.6%), sleep disturbance (4.%), tension (3.9%), fatigue (3%) and dizziness (2.4%). CONCLUSION: Based on the results of the present study, we conclude that the use of mobile phones is a risk factor for health hazards and suggest that long term or excessive use of mobile phones should be avoided by health promotion activities such as group discussions, public presentations and through electronic and print media sources.



Balikci K, Cem Ozcan I, Turgut-Balik D, Balik HH. A survey study on some neurological symptoms and sensations experienced by long term users of mobile phones. Pathol Biol (Paris). 53(1):30-34, 2005.

A survey study was conducted to investigate the possible effects of mobile phone on headache, dizziness, extreme irritation, shaking in the hands, speaking falteringly, forgetfulness, neuro-psychological discomfort, increase in the carelessness, decrease of the reflex and clicking sound in the ears. There is no effect on dizziness, shaking in hands, speaking falteringly and neuro-psychological discomfort, but some statistical evidences are found that mobile phone may cause headache, extreme irritation, increase in the carelessness, forgetfulness, decrease of the reflex and clicking sound in the ears.



Garcia Callejo FJ, Garcia Callejo F, Pena Santamaria J, Alonso Castaneira I, Sebastian Gil E, Marco Algarra J. [Hearing level and intensive use of mobile phones] Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp. 56(5):187-191, 2005.

[Article in Spanish]

INTRODUCTION: Wide studies and substantial controversies build on utilization of actual mobile phones and appearance of systemic disorders or even tumours, but there is no knowledge about an eventual involvement on early hearing loss. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In a group of three hundred and twenty-three healthy and normoacoustic volunteers who were usual costumers of mobile phones an audiometric evaluation was made at the beginnig of its use and three years later, inquiring about the periods of time per day and year employed on direct contacts with phone. A healthy and normoacoustic control group of non users was studied too. RESULTS: Cases carried out 24.3 +/- 8.2 active contacts, reaching 50.4 +/- 27.8 days of mobile phone employment in three years. Audiometric curve was similar in cases and controls at the beginning of the study. After this follow-up, cases showed an increase on hearing threshold between 1 and 5 dB HL more than controls in speech tones (p<0.001). Moreover, there was a trend to correlate time of phone use to hearing impairment, but this finding did not result statistically significative. CONCLUSIONS: Frequent management of mobile phones in a middle period of time allows to detect a mild hearing loss, but the cause of this disorder keeps unclear.



Hocking, B, Preliminary report: symptoms associated with mobile phone use. Occup Med (Lond);48(6):357-360, 1998.


Mobile phone use is ubiquitous, although the alleged health effects of low level radio-frequency radiation (RFR) used in transmission are contentious. Following isolated reports of headache-like symptoms arising in some users, a survey has been conducted to characterize the symptoms sometimes associated with mobile phone usage. A notice of interest in cases was placed in a major medical journal and this was publicized by the media. Respondents were interviewed by telephone using a structured questionnaire. Forty respondents from diverse occupations described unpleasant sensations such as a burning feeling or a dull ache mainly occurring in the temporal, occipital or auricular areas. The symptoms often began minutes after beginning a call, but could come on later during the day. The symptoms usually ceased within an hour after the call, but could last until evening. Symptoms did not occur when using an ordinary handset, and were different from ordinary headaches. There were several reports suggestive of intra-cranial effects. Three respondents reported local symptoms associated with wearing their mobile phone on their belts. There was one cluster of cases in a workplace. Seventy-five per cent of cases were associated with digital mobile phones. Most of the respondents obtained relief by altering their patterns of telephone usage or type of phone. Cranial and other diverse symptoms may arise associated with mobile phone usage. Physicians and users alike should be alert to this. Further work is needed to determine the range of effects, their mechanism and the possible implications for safety limits of RFR.



Meo SA, Al-Drees AM. Mobile phone related-hazards and subjective hearing and vision symptoms in the Saudi population. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 18(1):53-57, 2005

OBJECTIVES: Over the past decade utilization of mobile phones has dramatically increased. They are now an essential part of business, commerce, and communication, however, their use may lead to health problems. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate a link between the use of mobile phones and hearing and vision symptoms in the Saudi population and also to contribute to the increase in social awareness of health problems associated with the use of these devices. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 873 (57.04% of males and 39.86% of females) subjects using mobile phones were invited to participate in the presented study. A structured questionnaire was distributed among them to collect a detailed medical history. The Chi-square test was employed to observe the relationship between duration of calls and hearing and vision complaints. RESULTS: The present study showed an association between the use of mobile phones and hearing and vision complaints. About 34.59% of problems were related with impaired hearing, ear ache and/or warmth on the ear, and 5.04% of complaints with the decreased and/or blurred vision. CONCLUSIONS: It is concluded that the use of mobile phone is a health risk factor, and thus it is suggested that excessive use of mobile phones should be avoided and social awareness increased through health promotion activities, such as group discussions or public presentations and via electronic and printed media sources.



Wilen J, Sandstrom M, Hansson Mild K. Subjective symptoms among mobile phone users-A consequence of absorption of radiofrequency fields? Bioelectromagnetics 24(3):152-159, 2003.

In a previous epidemiological study, where we studied the prevalence of subjective symptoms among mobile phone (MP) users, we found as an interesting side finding that the prevalence of many of the subjective symptoms increased with increasing calling time and number of calls per day. In this extrapolative study, we have selected 2402 people from the epidemiological study who used any of the four most common GSM MP. We used the information about the prevalence of symptoms, calling time per day, and number of calls per day and combined it with measurements of the Specific Absorption Rate (SAR). We defined three volumes in the head and measured the maximum SAR averaged over a cube of 1 g tissue (SAR(1g)) in each volume. Two new exposure parameters Specific Absorption per Day (SAD) and Specific Absorption per Call (SAC) have been devised and are obtained as combinations of SAR, calling time per day, and number of calls per day, respectively. The results indicates that SAR values >0.5 W/kg may be an important factor for the prevalence of some of the symptoms, especially in combination with long calling times per day.



Wilen J, Johansson A, Kalezic N, Lyskov E, Sandstrom M. Psychophysiological tests and provocation of subjects with mobile phone related symptoms. Bioelectromagnetics. 2005 Nov 22; [Epub ahead of print]

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of exposure to a mobile phone-like radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic field on persons experiencing subjective symptoms when using mobile phones (MP). Twenty subjects with MP-related symptoms were recruited and matched with 20 controls without MP-related symptoms. Each subject participated in two experimental sessions, one with true exposure and one with sham exposure, in random order. In the true exposure condition, the test subjects were exposed for 30 min to an RF field generating a maximum SAR(1g) in the head of 1 W/kg through an indoor base station antenna attached to a 900 MHz GSM MP. The following physiological and cognitive parameters were measured during the experiment: heart rate and heart rate variability (HRV), respiration, local blood flow, electrodermal activity, critical flicker fusion threshold (CFFT), short-term memory, and reaction time. No significant differences related to RF exposure conditions were detected. Also no differences in baseline data were found between subject groups, except for the reaction time, which was significantly longer among the cases than among the controls the first time the test was performed. This difference disappeared when the test was repeated. However, the cases differed significantly from the controls with respect to HRV as measured in the frequency domain. The cases displayed a shift in low/high frequency ratio towards a sympathetic dominance in the autonomous nervous system during the CFFT and memory tests, regardless of exposure condition. This might be interpreted as a sign of differences in the autonomous nervous system regulation between persons with MP related subjective symptoms and persons with no such symptoms.



Mobile phone affects cerebral blood flow in humans. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 26(7):885-890, 2006.

Mobile phones create a radio-frequency electromagnetic field (EMF) around them when in use, the effects of which on brain physiology in humans are not well known. We studied the effects of a commercial mobile phone on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in healthy humans using positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. Positron emission tomography data was acquired using a double-blind, counterbalanced study design with 12 male subjects performing a computer-controlled verbal working memory task (letter 1-back). Explorative and objective voxel-based statistical analysis revealed that a mobile phone in operation induces a local decrease in rCBF beneath the antenna in the inferior temporal cortex and an increase more distantly in the prefrontal cortex. Our results provide the first evidence, suggesting that the EMF emitted by a commercial mobile phone affects rCBF in humans. These results are consistent with the postulation that EMF induces changes in neuronal activity.



Chia SE, Chia HP, Tan JS, Prevalence of headache among handheld cellular telephone users in singapore: A community study. Environ Health Perspect 108(11):1059-1062, 2000.

We carried out a cross-sectional community study in Singapore to determine the prevalence of specific central nervous system (CNS) symptoms among hand-held cellular telephone (HP) users compared to nonusers and to study the association of risk factors and CNS symptoms among HP users. A total of 808 men and women between 12 and 70 years of age, who lived in one community, were selected using one-stage cluster random sampling and responses to a structured questionnaire. The prevalence of HP users was 44.8%. Headache was the most prevalent symptom among HP users compared to non-HP users, with an adjusted prevalence rate ratio of 1.31 [95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.70]. There is a significant increase in the prevalence of headache with increasing duration of usage (in minutes per day). Prevalence of headache was reduced by more than 20% among those who used hand-free equipment for their cellular telephones as compared to those who never use the equipment. The use of HPs is not associated with a significant increase of CNS symptoms other than headache.


Oftedal G, Wilen J, Sandstrom M, Mild KH, Symptoms experienced in connection with mobile phone use. Occup Med (Lond) 50(4):237-245, 2000.


Many people in Norway and Sweden reported headaches, fatigue, and other symptoms experienced in connection with the use of a mobile phone (MP). Therefore, we initiated a cross-sectional epidemiological study among 17,000 people, all using an MP in their job. Thirty-one percent of the respondents in Norway and 13% of those in Sweden had experienced at least one symptom in connection with MP use. Next to the sensations of warmth on the ear and behind/around the ear, burning sensations in the facial skin and headaches were most commonly reported. Most symptoms usually began during or within half an hour after the call and lasted for up to 2 h. Relatively few had consulted a physician or been on sick leave because of the symptoms, but about 45% among those with an MP attributed symptom had taken steps to reduce the symptom. These results suggest an awareness of the symptoms, but not necessarily a serious health problem.




Sandstrom M, Wilen J, Oftedal G, Hansson Mild K, Mobile phone use and subjective symptoms. Comparison of symptoms experienced by users of analogue and digital mobile phones. Occup Med (Lond) 51(1):25-35, 2001.

In 1995 many people reported symptoms such as headaches, feelings of discomfort, warmth behind/around or on the ear and difficulties concentrating while using mobile phones. The number of complaints was higher for people using the digital (GSM) system, i.e. with pulse modulated fields, than for those using the analogue (NMT) system. Our main hypothesis was that GSM users experience more symptoms than NMT users. An epidemiological investigation was initiated including 6379 GSM users and 5613 NMT 900 users in Sweden, and 2500 from each category in Norway. The adjusted odds ratio did not indicate any increased risk for symptoms for GSM users compared with NMT 900 users. Our hypothesis was therefore disproved. However, we observed a statistically significant lower risk for sensations of warmth on the ear for GSM users compared with NMT 900 users. The same trend was seen in Norway for sensations of warmth behind/around the ear and in Sweden for headaches and fatigue. Factors distinguishing the two systems (radio frequency emission, phone temperatures and various ergonomic factors) may be responsible for these results, as well as for a secondary finding: a statistically significant association between calling time/number of calls per day and the prevalence of warmth behind/around or on the ear, headaches and fatigue.


Santini R, Seigne M, Bonhomme-Faivre L, Bouffet S, Defrasne E, Sage M. Symptoms experienced by users of digital cellular phones: a pilot study in a French engineering school. Pathol Biol (Paris) 49(3):222-226, 2001.

[Article in French]

A survey study, using questionnaire, was conducted in 161 students and workers in a French engineering school on symptoms experienced during use of digital cellular phones. A significant increase in concentration difficult (p < 0.05) was reported by users of 1800-MHz (DCS) cellular phones compared to 900-MHz (GSM) phone users. In users of cellular phones, women significantly (p < 0.05) complained more often of sleep disturbance than men. This sex difference for sleep complaint is not observed between women and men non-users of cellular phone. The use of both cellular phones and VDT significantly (p Ä 0.05) increased concentration difficulty. Digital cellular phone users also significantly (p < 0.05) more often complained of discomfort, warmth, and picking on the ear during phone conversation in relation with calling duration per day and number of calls per day. The complaint warmth on the ear might be a signal to users for stopping the call.







2. Measured Neurological effects

Measured changes in neurological behaviour.



Cao Z, Liu J, Li S, Zhao X. [Effects of electromagnetic radiation from handsets of cellular telephone on neurobehavioral function] Wei Sheng Yan Jiu 29(2):102-103, 2000.

[Article in Chinese]

In order to study the effects of electromagnetic radiation from handsets of cellular telephone on neurobehavioral function, 81 staff with handsets of cellular telephone and 63 staff without handsets of cellular telephone from corporations were selected as the subjects. The subjects were investigated by questionnaire on their general health, lifestyle habit, suppress of spirit, handset using of cellular telephone, environmental exposure, morbidity, and the neurobehavioral core test battery(NCTB). The data was analyzed by chi-square, stepwise regression analysis and covariance statistics. The results showed that the average reaction time in user's group was longer than that in control group (P < 0.01). The time of using handset was negatively associated with corrected reaction number (P < 0.01). The fast reaction time and the slowest reaction time were positively associated with the length of handset using (P < 0.01, P < 0.05). The results suggested that the handset using could cause adverse health effects in neurobehavioral function.


Crouzier D, Debouzy JC, Bourbon F, Collin A, Perrin A, Testylier G. Neurophysiologic effects at low level 1.8 GHz radiofrequency field exposure: a multiparametric approach on freely moving rats. Pathol Biol (Paris). 2006 Jul 31; [Epub ahead of print]

Deleterious effects on healthcare and particularly disruption of the cholinergic system have been reported after exposure to radiofrequency field at low power density. This work presents a 72 hours multiparametric study, where cholinergic system was investigated using a neurochemical, electrophysiological and physiological approaches. Free moving rats were exposed 24 hours to RF GSM signal at 1.8 GHz at low power density (1.2 and 9 W/m(2)). Acetylcholine (ACh) release in the hippocampus was simultaneously monitored using the microdialysis technique, electroencephalogram (EEG), electromyogram (EMG) and subcutaneous temperature. A spectral analysis of EEG was also performed and sleep stages were determined. After experimental time, the animals were sacrificed and a NMR study was performed on lipid brain extract. No significant parameters modification was observed under RF exposure. The only significant difference was the lack of increase in time spent in REM sleep, the third day, for the 1.2 W/m(2) group. This observation appeared difficult to explain and could not be reasonably related with RF exposure. Similarly, the NMR study also failed to show any effect of RF.


Curcio G, Ferrara M, De Gennaro L, Cristiani R, D'Inzeo G, Bertini M. Time-course of electromagnetic field effects on human performance and tympanic temperature. Neuroreport. 15(1):161-164, 2004.

The study aimed to investigate the time-course of electromagnetic field (EMF)-induced effects on human cognitive and behavioral performance and on tympanic temperature. Subjects were randomly assigned to two groups, exposed to a 902.40 MHz EMF before the testing session, or to the same signal during the data collecting session. Following a double-blind paradigm, subjects were tested on four performance tasks: an acoustic simple-reaction time task, a visual search task, an arithmetic descending subtraction task and an acoustic choice-reaction time task. Moreover, tympanic temperature was collected five times during each session. Results indicated an improvement of both simple- and choice-reaction times and an increase of local temperature on the exposed region under the active exposure. There was a clear time-course of the reaction time and temperature data, indicating that performance and physiological measures need a minimum of 25 min of EMF exposure to show appreciable changes.


Edelstyn N, Oldershaw A. The acute effects of exposure to the electromagnetic field emitted by mobile phones on human attention. Neuroreport 13(1):119-121, 2002.

The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of acute mobile phone exposure on a range of tasks which tapped capacity and processing speed within the attentional system. Thirty-eight healthy volunteers were randomly assigned to either an experimental group which was exposed to a connected mobile phone or a control group in which the mobile phone was switched off. Subjects remained blind to mobile phone status throughout duration of study. The experimental group were exposed to an electromagnetic field emitted by a 900 MHz mobile phone for 30 min. Cognitive performance was assessed at three points (prior to mobile phone exposure, at 15 and 30 min post-exposure) using six cognitive neuropsychological tests (digit span and spatial span forwards and backwards, serial subtraction and verbal fluency). Significant differences between the two groups were evident after 5 min on two tests of attentional capacity (digit span forwards and spatial span backwards) and one of processing speed (serial subtraction). In all three instances, performance was facilitated following mobile phone exposure. No deficits were evident. These findings are discussed in terms of possible functional and neuroanatomical bases.


Eliyahu I, Luria R, Hareuveny R, Margaliot M, Meiran N, Shani G.
Effects of radiofrequency radiation emitted by cellular telephones on the cognitive functions of humans. Bioelectromagnetics. 2005 Nov 22; [Epub ahead of print]

The present study examined the effects of exposure to Electromagnetic Radiation emitted by a standard GSM phone at 890 MHz on human cognitive functions. This study attempted to establish a connection between the exposure of a specific area of the brain and the cognitive functions associated with that area. A total of 36 healthy right-handed male subjects performed four distinct cognitive tasks: spatial item recognition, verbal item recognition, and two spatial compatibility tasks. Tasks were chosen according to the brain side they are assumed to activate. All subjects performed the tasks under three exposure conditions: right side, left side, and sham exposure. The phones were controlled by a base station simulator and operated at their full power. We have recorded the reaction times (RTs) and accuracy of the responses. The experiments consisted of two sections, of 1 h each, with a 5 min break in between. The tasks and the exposure regimes were counterbalanced. The results indicated that the exposure of the left side of the brain slows down the left-hand response time, in the second-later-part of the experiment. This effect was apparent in three of the four tasks, and was highly significant in only one of the tests. The exposure intensity and its duration exceeded the common exposure of cellular phone users.


Esen F, Esen H Effect of electromagnetic fields emitted by cellular phones on the latency of evoked electrodermal activity. Int J Neurosci. 116(3):321-329, 2006.

The widespread use of cellular phones raises the question of their possible adverse biological effects, especially on the central nervous system (CNS). Therefore, the authors examined the effect of electromagnetic fields emitted by cellular phones (CPEMFs) on the evoked neuronal activity of CNS relating to generation and representation of electrodermal activity (EDA), an index of sympathetic nervous system activity. EDA (skin resistance response; SRR) latency was lengthened approximately 200 ms with CPEMFs exposure irrespective of the head site next to mobile phone used. Hemispheric asymmetry of EDA-2 pathway, which is represented by shorter SRR latency in the right hand of the right hand responders, was also distorted with CPEMFs. Because the CNS regions including EDA-2 are also involved in tasks of motor timing and time estimation, delayed response in this neuronal network due to CPEMFs exposure may increase the response time of mobile phone users. Therefore, the findings point to the potential risks of mobile phones on the function of CNS and consequently, possible increase in the risk of phone-related driving hazards.


Eulitz, C, Ullsperger, P, Freude, G, Elbert ,T, Mobile phones modulate response patterns of human brain activity. Neuroreport 9(14):3229-3232, 1998.


Mobile phones emit a pulsed high-frequency electromagnetic field (PEMF) which may penetrate the scalp and the skull. Increasingly, there is an interest in the interaction of this pulsed microwave radiation with the human brain. Our investigations show that these electromagnetic fields alter distinct aspects of the brain's electrical response to acoustic stimuli. More precisely, our results demonstrate that aspects of the induced but not the evoked brain activity during PEMF exposure can be different from those not influenced by PEMF radiation. This effect appears in higher frequency bands when subjects process task-relevant target stimuli but was not present for irrelevant standard stimuli. As the induced brain activity in higher frequency bands has been proposed to be a correlate of coherent high-frequency neuronal activity, PEMF exposure may provide means to systematically alter the pattern fluctuations in neural mass activity.


Ferreri F, Curcio G, Pasqualetti P, De Gennaro L, Fini R, Rossini PM. Mobile phone emissions and human brain excitability. Ann Neurol. 2006 Jun 26; [Epub ahead of print]

OBJECTIVE: To test-via Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS)-the excitability of each brain hemisphere after 'real' or 'sham' exposure to the electromagnetic field (EMF) generated by a mobile phone operating in the Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM). METHODS: Fifteen male volunteers attended two experimental sessions, one week apart, in a cross-over, double-blind paradigm. In one session the signal was turned ON (EMF-on, real exposure), in the other it was turned OFF (EMF-off, sham exposure), for 45 minutes. Motor Evoked Potentials (MEPs) were recorded using a paired-pulse paradigm (testing intracortical excitability with 1 to 17 ms interstimulus intervals), both before and at different times after exposure to the EMF. Short Intracortical Inhibition (SICI) and Facilitation (ICF) curves were evaluated both on the exposed and non-exposed hemispheres. Tympanic temperature was collected during each session. RESULTS: The intracortical excitability curve becomes significantly modified during real exposure, with SICI being reduced and ICF enhanced in the acutely exposed brain hemisphere as compared to the contralateral, non-exposed hemisphere or to sham exposure. Tympanic temperature showed no significant main effect or interactions. INTERPRETATION: These results demonstrate that GSM-EMFs modify


Freude, G, Ullsperger, P, Eggert ,S, Ruppe, I, Effects of microwaves emitted by cellular phones on human slow brain potentials. Bioelectromagnetics 19(6):384-387, 1998.


The influence of electromagnetic fields (EMF) emitted by cellular phones on preparatory slow brain potentials (SP) was studied in two different experimental tasks: In the first, healthy male human subjects had to perform simple self-paced finger movements to elicit a Bereitschaftspotential; in the second, they performed a complex and cognitive demanding visual monitoring task (VMT). Both tasks were performed with and without EMF exposure in counterbalanced order. Whereas subjects' performance did not differ between the EMF exposure conditions, SP parameters were influenced by EMF in the VMT: EMF exposure effected a significant decrease of SPs at central and temporo-parieto-occipital brain regions, but not at the frontal one. In the simple finger movement task, EMF did not affect the Bereitschaftspotential.


Freude, G, Ullsperger, P, Eggert, S, Ruppe, I, Microwaves emitted by cellular telephones affect human slow brain potentials. Eur J Appl Physiol 81(1-2):18-27, 2000.


The influence of electromagnetic fields (EMF) emitted by cellular telephones on preparatory slow brain potentials (SP) was studied in two experiments, about 6 months apart. In the first experiment, a significant decrease of SP was found during exposure to EMF in a complex visual monitoring task (VMT). This effect was replicated in the second experiment. In addition to the VMT, EMF effects on SP were analysed in two further, less demanding tasks: in a simple finger movement task to elicit a Bereitschaftspotential (BP) and in a two-stimulus task to elicit a contingent negative variation (CNV). In comparison to the VMT, no significant main EMF effects were found in BP and CNV tasks. The results accounted for a selective EMF effect on particular aspects of human information processing, but did not indicate any influence on human performance, well-being and health.


Hamblin DL, Wood AW, Croft RJ, Stough C. Examining the effects of electromagnetic fields emitted by GSM mobile phones on human event-related potentials and performance during an auditory task. Clin Neurophysiol. 115(1):171-178, 2004.

OBJECTIVE: Due to the widespread use of mobile phones (MP), it is important to determine whether they affect human physiology. The aim of this study was to explore the sensitivity of auditory event-related potentials to electromagnetic emissions. METHODS: Twelve participants attended two sessions, 1 week apart. Participants performed an auditory oddball task while they were exposed to an active MP during one session and sham exposure during the other. Each condition lasted 1 h and order was counterbalanced. N100 and P200 latencies and amplitudes were analysed for non-target waveforms, and N200 and P300 latencies and amplitudes were analysed for target waveforms. RESULTS: In real relative to sham exposure N100 amplitude and latency to non-targets were reduced, with the reduction larger over midline and right hemisphere sites. P300 latency to targets was delayed in the real exposure condition, however as this difference was greatest at left frontal and left central sites the interpretation of this result is unclear. Reaction time increased in the real relative to sham condition. No difference in accuracy was found. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that MP exposure may affect neural activity, particularly in proximity to the phone, however caution should be applied due to the small sample size.


Huber R, Graf T, Cote KA, Wittmann L, Gallmann E, Matter D, Schuderer J, Kuster N, Borbely AA, Achermann P, Exposure to pulsed high-frequency electromagnetic field during waking affects human sleep EEG. Neuroreport 11(15):3321-3325, 2000.

The aim of the study was to investigate whether the electromagnetic field (EMF) emitted by digital radiotelephone handsets affects brain physiology. Healthy, young male subjects were exposed for 30 min to EMF (900 MHz; spatial peak specific absorption rate 1 W/kg) during the waking period preceding sleep. Compared with the control condition with sham exposure, spectral power of the EEG in non-rapid eye movement sleep was increased. The maximum rise occurred in the 9.75-11.25 Hz and 12.5-13.25 Hz band during the initial part of sleep. These changes correspond to those obtained in a previous study where EMF was intermittently applied during sleep. Unilateral exposure induced no hemispheric asymmetry of EEG power. The present results demonstrate that exposure during waking modifies the EEG during subsequent sleep. Thus the changes of brain function induced by pulsed high-frequency EMF outlast the exposure period.


Huber R, Treyer V, Borbély AA, Schuderer J, Gottselig JM,  Landolt H-P, Werth E, Berthold T, Kuster N, Buck A, Achermann P,  Electromagnetic fields, such as those from mobile phones, alter regional cerebral blood flow and sleep and waking EEGJ Sleep Res 11: 289-295, 2002.

Usage of mobile phones is rapidly increasing, but there is limited data on the possible effects of electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure on brain physiology. We investigated the effect of EMF vs. sham control exposure on waking regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and on waking and sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) in humans. In Experiment 1, positron emission tomography (PET) scans were taken after unilateral head exposure to 30-min pulse-modulated 900 MHz electromagnetic field (pm-EMF). In Experiment 2, night-time sleep was polysomnographically recorded after EMF exposure. Pulse-modulated EMF exposure increased relative rCBF in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex ipsilateral to exposure. Also, pm-EMF exposure enhanced EEG power in the alpha frequency range prior to sleep onset and in the spindle frequency range during stage 2 sleep. Exposure to EMF without pulse modulation did not enhance power in the waking or sleep EEG. We previously observed EMF effects on the sleep EEG (A. A. Borbély, R. Huber, T. Graf, B. Fuchs, E. Gallmann and P. Achermann. Neurosci. Lett., 1999, 275: 207-210; R. Huber, T. Graf, K. A. Cote, L. Wittmann, E. Gallmann, D. Matter, J. Schuderer, N. Kuster, A. A. Borbély, and P. Achermann. Neuroreport, 2000, 11: 3321-3325), but the basis for these effects was unknown. The present results show for the first time that (1) pm-EMF alters waking rCBF and (2) pulse modulation of EMF is necessary to induce waking and sleep EEG changes. Pulse-modulated EMF exposure may provide a new, non-invasive method for modifying brain function for experimental, diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.


Huber R, Schuderer J, Graf T, Jutz K, Borbely AA, Kuster N, Achermann P.  Radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure in humans: Estimation of SAR distribution in the brain, effects on sleep and heart rate. Bioelectromagnetics 24(4):262-276, 2003.

In two previous studies we demonstrated that radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF EMF) similar to those emitted by digital radiotelephone handsets affect brain physiology of healthy young subjects exposed to RF EMF (900 MHz; spatial peak specific absorption rate [SAR] 1 W/kg) either during sleep or during the waking period preceding sleep. In the first experiment, subjects were exposed intermittently during an 8 h nighttime sleep episode and in the second experiment, unilaterally for 30 min prior to a 3 h daytime sleep episode. Here we report an extended analysis of the two studies as well as the detailed dosimetry of the brain areas, including the assessment of the exposure variability and uncertainties. The latter enabled a more in depth analysis and discussion of the findings. Compared to the control condition with sham exposure, spectral power of the non-rapid eye movement sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) was initially increased in the 9-14 Hz range in both experiments. No topographical differences with respect to the effect of RF EMF exposure were observed in the two experiments. Even unilateral exposure during waking induced a similar effect in both hemispheres. Exposure during sleep reduced waking after sleep onset and affected heart rate variability. Exposure prior to sleep reduced heart rate during waking and stage 1 sleep. The lack of asymmetries in the effects on sleep EEG, independent of bi- or unilateral exposure of the cortex, may indicate involvement of subcortical bilateral projections to the cortex in the generation of brain function changes, especially since the exposure of the thalamus was similar in both experiments (approx. 0.1 W/kg).


Huber R, Treyer V, Schuderer J, Berthold T, Buck A, Kuster N, Landolt HP, Achermann P. Exposure to pulse-modulated radio frequency electromagnetic fields affects regional cerebral blood flow. Eur J Neurosci. 21(4):1000-1006, 2005.

We investigated the effects of radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF EMF) similar to those emitted by mobile phones on waking regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in 12 healthy young men. Two types of RF EMF exposure were applied: a 'base-station-like' and a 'handset-like' signal. Positron emission tomography scans were taken after 30 min unilateral head exposure to pulse-modulated 900 MHz RF EMF (10 g tissue-averaged spatial peak-specific absorption rate of 1 W/kg for both conditions) and sham control. We observed an increase in relative rCBF in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex on the side of exposure. The effect depended on the spectral power in the amplitude modulation of the RF carrier such that only 'handset-like' RF EMF exposure with its stronger low-frequency components but not the 'base-station-like' RF EMF exposure affected rCBF. This finding supports our previous observation that pulse modulation of RF EMF is necessary to induce changes in the waking and sleep EEG, and substantiates the notion that pulse modulation is crucial for RF EMF-induced alterations in brain physiology.


Jech R, Sonka K, Ruzicka E, Nebuzelsky A, Bohm J, Juklickova M, Nevsimalova S. Electromagnetic field of mobile phones affects visual event related potential in patients with narcolepsy. Bioelectromagnetics 22(7):519-528, 2001.

The effects of the mobile phone (MP) electromagnetic fields on electroencephalography (EEG) and event-related potentials (ERP) were examined. With regard to the reported effects of MP on sleep, 22 patients with narcolepsy-cataplexy were exposed or sham exposed for 45 min to the MP (900 MHz, specific absorption rate 0.06 W/kg) placed close to the right ear in a double blind study. There were no changes of the EEG recorded after the MP exposure. A subgroup of 17 patients was studied on visual ERP recorded during the MP exposure. Using an adapted "odd-ball" paradigm, each patient was instructed to strike a key whenever rare target stimuli were presented. There were three variants of target stimuli (horizontal stripes in (i) left, (ii) right hemifields or (iii) whole field of the screen). The exposure enhanced the positivity of the ERP endogenous complex solely in response to target stimuli in the right hemifield of the screen (P < 0.01). The reaction time was shortened by 20 ms in response to all target stimuli (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the electromagnetic field of MP may suppress the excessive sleepiness and improve performance while solving a monotonous cognitive task requiring sustained attention and vigilance.


Keetley V, Wood AW, Spong J, Stough C. Neuropsychological sequelae of digital mobile phone exposure in humans. Neuropsychologia. 2006 Apr 14; [Epub ahead of print]

The effect of electromagnetic fields from digital mobile phones (DMP) on cognitive functioning is an area receiving increased attention. This study compares the performance of 120 volunteers on 8 neuropsychological tests during real or sham exposure to a DMP set to maximum permissible radiofrequency power output. When results were adjusted for known covariates (gender, age, or education), several alterations at significance levels of p<0.05 were obtained. Of these, simple and choice reaction times (CRT) showed strong evidence of impairment. Further, performance on the Trail Making Task (TMT) improved, supporting the hypothesis that DMP radiofrequency emissions improve the speed of processing of information held in working memory.


Koivisto, M, Revonsuo, A, Krause, C, Haarala, C, Sillanmaki, L, Laine, M, Hamalainen, H, Effects of 902 MHz electromagnetic field emitted by cellular telephones on response times in humans. Neuroreport 11(2):413-415, 2000.


The present study examined possible influences of a 902 MHz electromagnetic field emitted by cellular telephones on cognitive functioning in 48 healthy humans. A battery of 12 reaction time tasks was performed twice by each participant in a counterbalanced order: once with and once without the exposure to the field. The results showed that the exposure to the electromagnetic field speeded up response times in simple reaction time and vigilance tasks and that the cognitive time needed in a mental arithmetics task was decreased. The results suggest that exposure to the electromagnetic field emitted by cellular telephones may have a facilitatory effect on brain functioning, especially in tasks requiring attention and manipulation of information in working memory.


Koivisto M, Krause CM, Revonsuo A, Laine M, Hamalainen H, The effects of electromagnetic field emitted by GSM phones on working memory. Neuroreport 11(8):1641-1643, 2000.


The influence of pulsed radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields of digital GSM mobile phones on working memory in healthy subjects were studied. Memory load was varied from 0 to 3 items in an n-back task. Each subject was tested twice within a single session, with and without the RF exposure (902MHz, 217Hz). The RF field speeded up response times when the memory load was three items but no effects of RF were observed with lower loads. The results suggest that RF fields have a measurable effect on human cognitive performance and encourage further studies on the interactions of RF fields with brain function.



Cell phones emitting pulsed high-frequency electromagnetic fields (EMF) may affect the human brain, but there are inconsistent results concerning their effects on electroencephalogram (EEG). We used a 16-channel telemetric electroencephalograph (ExpertTM), to record EEG changes during exposure of human skull to EMF emitted by a mobile phone. Spatial distribution of EMF was especially concentrated around the ipsilateral eye adjacent to the basal surface of the brain. Traditional EEG was full of noises during operation of a cellular phone. Using a telemetric electroencephalograph (ExpertTM) in awake subjects, all the noise was eliminated, and EEG showed interesting changes: after a period of 10-15 s there was no visible change, the spectrum median frequency increased in areas close to antenna; after 20-40 s, a slow-wave activity (2.5-6.0 Hz) appeared in the contralateral frontal and temporal areas. These slow waves lasting for about one second repeated every 15-20 s at the same recording electrodes. After turning off the mobile phone, slow-wave activity progressively disappeared; local changes such as increased median frequency decreased and disappeared after 15-20 min. We observed similar changes in children, but the slow-waves with higher amplitude appeared earlier in children (10-20 s) than adults, and their frequency was lower (1.0-2.5 Hz) with longer duration and shorter intervals. The results suggested that cellular phones may reversibly influence the human brain, inducing abnormal slow waves in EEG of awake persons.


Krause CM, Sillanmaki L, Koivisto M, Haggqvist A, Saarela C, Revonsuo A, Laine M, Hamalainen H, Effects of electromagnetic field emitted by cellular phones on the EEG during a memory task. Neuroreport 11(4):761-764, 2000.


The effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) emitted by cellular phones on the ERD/ERS of the 4-6 Hz, 6-8 Hz, 8-10 Hz and 10-12 Hz EEG frequency bands were studied in 16 normal subjects performing an auditory memory task. All subjects performed the memory task both with and without exposure to a digital 902 MHz EMF in counterbalanced order. The exposure to EMF significantly increased EEG power in the 8-10 Hz frequency band only. Nonetheless, the presence of EMF altered the ERD/ERS responses in all studied frequency bands as a function of time and memory task (encoding vs retrieval). Our results suggest that the exposure to EMF does not alter the resting EEG per se but modifies the brain responses significantly during a memory task.


Krause CM, Sillanmaki L, Koivisto M, Haggqvist A, Saarela C, Revonsuo A, Laine M, Hamalainen H, Effects of electromagnetic fields emitted by cellular phones on the electroencephalogram during a visual working memory task. Int J Radiat Biol 76(12):1659-1667, 2000.

PURPOSE: To examine the effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) emitted by cellular phones on the event-related desynchronization/synchronization (ERD/ERS) responses of the 4-6, 6-8, 8-10 and 10-12Hz EEG frequency bands during cognitive processing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-four subjects performed a visual sequential letter task (n-back task) with three different working memory load conditions: zero, one and two items. All subjects performed the memory task both with and without exposure to a digital 902 MHz EMF in counterbalanced order. RESULTS: The presence of EMF altered the ERD/ERS responses in the 6-8 and 8-10 Hz frequency bands but only when examined as a function of memory load and depending also on whether the presented stimulus was a target or not. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the exposure to EMF modulates the responses of EEG oscillatory activity approximately 8 Hz specifically during cognitive processes.


Krause CM, Bjornberg CH, Pesonen M, Hulten A, Liesivuori T, Koivisto M, Revonsuo A, Laine M, Hamalainen H. Mobile phone effects on children's event-related oscillatory EEG during an auditory memory task. Int J Radiat Biol. 82(6):443-450, 2006.

Purpose: To assess the effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) emitted by mobile phones (MP) on the 1 - 20 Hz event-related brain oscillatory EEG (electroencephalogram) responses in children performing an auditory memory task (encoding and recognition).Materials and methods: EEG data were gathered while 15 subjects (age 10 - 14 years) performed an auditory memory task both with and without exposure to a digital 902 MHz MP in counterbalanced order.Results: During memory encoding, the active MP modulated the event-related desynchronization/synchronization (ERD/ERS) responses in the approximately 4 - 8 Hz EEG frequencies. During recognition, the active MP transformed these brain oscillatory responses in the approximately 4 - 8 Hz and approximately 15 Hz frequencies.Conclusions: The current findings suggest that EMF emitted by mobile phones has effects on brain oscillatory responses during cognitive processing in children.


Lebedeva NN, Sulimov AV, Sulimova OP, Kotrovskaya TI, Gailus T,
Cellular phone electromagnetic field effects on bioelectric activity of human brain. Crit Rev Biomed Eng 28(1-2):323-337, 2000.

24 volunteers participated in the experiments. The investigation of EEG reactions to cellular phone (EMF frequency 902.4 MHz and intensity 0.06 mW/cm2) was conducted. Two experiments were performed with each subject--cellular phone exposure and Placebo Duration of the experiment was 60 min: 15 min--background; 15 min--EMF exposure or Placebo; 30 min--afterexposure. EEG was recorded in 16 standard leads with "eyes open" and "eyes closed". Special software with non-linear dynamics was developed for EEG analyses. One parameter, multichannel (global) correlation dimension, was calculated. The changes of these parameters can be evidence of brain functional state changes. As a result of EEG record processing, a significant increase of global correlation dimension during the exposure and afterexposure period was discovered, more pronounced in the case of "eyes closed". That can be viewed as the manifestation of cortex activation under phone EMF exposure.


Lebedeva NN, Sulimov AV, Sulimova OP, Korotkovskaya TI, Gailus T, Investigation of brain potentials in sleeping humans exposed to the electromagnetic field of mobile phones. Crit Rev Biomed Eng 29(1):125-133, 2001.
An investigation was made of 8-hour EEG tracings of sleeping humans exposed to the electromagnetic field of a GSM-standard mobile phone. To analyze the EEG-patterns, manual scoring, nonlinear dynamics, and spectral analysis were employed. It was found that, when human beings were exposed to the electromagnetic field of a cellular phone, their cerebral cortex biopotentials revealed an increase in the alpha-range power density as compared to the placebo experiment. It was also found that the dimension of EEG correlation dynamics and the relation of sleep stages changed under the influence of the electromagnetic field of a mobile phone.


Lee TMC, Ho SMY, Tsang  LYH, Yang SYC, Li LSW, Chan CCH, Effect on human attention of exposure to the electromagnetic field emitted by mobile phones. NeuroReport 12:729-731, 2001.


This study examined the effect of exposure to the electromagnetic field emitted by mobile phones on human attention. Three measures of attention were administered to 72 teenagers, 37 of whom were mobile phone users. The results showed that the mobile phone users performed better on one of the three measures of attention than did the non-mobile phone users. The results suggest that exposure to the electro- magnetic field emitted by mobile phones may have a mild facilitating effect on attention functions, which is consistent with previous observations that exposure to the electromagnetic field has a facilitating effect on cognitive processing. The possibility that mobile phone users may be naturally better at multiple tasking tasks was discussed.


Lee TM, Lam PK, Yee LT, Chan CC. The effect of the duration of exposure to the electromagnetic field emitted by mobile phones on human attention. Neuroreport. 14(10):1361-1364, 2003.

Previous findings suggested the facilitating effect of the electromagnetic field emitted by mobile phones on human attention. This study aimed to examine the relationship between the facilitating effect and the duration of exposure to the electromagnetic field emitted by mobile phones on human attention. Seventy-eight university students were randomly assigned to either an experimental or a control group. Their performance in the administered attention tasks was compared. Participants in the experimental group performed better on one of the two measures of attention only after they had been exposed to the electromagnetic field emitted by the mobile phone for some time. The results seem to suggest that attention functions may be differentially enhanced after exposing to the electromagnetic field emitted by mobile phones. Furthermore, this transient facilitation effect might be dose dependent.


Litovitz TA, Krause D, Penafiel M, Elson EC, Mullins JM, The role of coherence time in the effect of microwaves on ornithine decarboxylase activity. Bioelectromagnetics 14(5):395-403, 1993.

Previously, we demonstrated the requirements for a minimum coherence time of an applied, small amplitude (10 microT) ELF magnetic field if the field were to produce an enhancement of ornithine decarboxylase activity in L929 fibroblasts. Further investigation has revealed a remarkably similar coherence time phenomenon for enhancement of ornithine decarboxylase activity by amplitude-modulated 915 MHz microwaves of large amplitude (SAR 2.5 W/kg). Microwave fields modulated at 55, 60, or 65 Hz approximately doubled ornithine decarboxylase activity after 8 h. Switching modulation frequencies from 55 to 65 Hz at coherence times of 1.0 s or less abolished enhancement, while times of 10 s or longer provided full enhancement. Our results show that the microwave coherence effects are remarkably similar to those observed with ELF fields.


Litovitz, TA, Penafiel, LM, Farrel, JM, Krause, D, Meister, R, Mullins, JM Bioeffects induced by exposure to microwaves are mitigated by superposition of ELF noise. Bioelectromagnetics 18(6):422-430, 1997.


We have previously demonstrated that microwave fields, amplitude modulated (AM) by an extremely low-frequency (ELF) sine wave, can induce a nearly twofold enhancement in the activity of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) in L929 cells at SAR levels of the order of 2.5 W/kg. Similar, although less pronounced, effects were also observed from exposure to a typical digital cellular phone test signal of the same power level, burst modulated at 50 Hz. We have also shown that ODC enhancement in L929 cells produced by exposure to ELF fields can be inhibited by superposition of ELF noise. In the present study, we explore the possibility that similar inhibition techniques can be used to suppress the microwave response. We concurrently exposed L929 cells to 60 Hz AM microwave fields or a 50 Hz burst-modulated DAMPS (Digital Advanced Mobile Phone System) digital cellular phone field at levels known to produce ODC enhancement, together with band-limited 30-100 Hz ELF noise with root mean square amplitude of up to 10 microT. All exposures were carried out for 8 h, which was previously found to yield the peak microwave response. In both cases, the ODC enhancement was found to decrease exponentially as a function of the noise root mean square amplitude. With 60 Hz AM microwaves, complete inhibition was obtained with noise levels at or above 2 microT. With the DAMPS digital cellular phone signal, complete inhibition occurred with noise levels at or above 5 microT. These results suggest a possible practical means to inhibit biological effects from exposure to both ELF and microwave fields.


Lopez-Martin E, Relova-Quinteiro JL, Gallego-Gomez R, Peleteiro-Fernandez M, Jorge-Barreiro FJ, Ares-Pena FJ. GSM radiation triggers seizures and increases cerebral c-Fos positivity in rats pretreated with subconvulsive doses of picrotoxin. Neurosci Lett. 2006 Jan 27; [Epub ahead of print]

This study investigated the effects of mobile-phone-type radiation on the cerebral activity of seizure-prone animals. When rats transformed into an experimental model of seizure-proneness by acute subconvulsive doses of picrotoxin were exposed to 2h GSM-modulated 900MHz radiation at an intensity similar to that emitted by mobile phones, they suffered seizures and the levels of the neuronal activity marker c-Fos in neocortex, paleocortex, hippocampus and thalamus increased markedly. Non-irradiated picrotoxin-treated rats did not suffer seizures, and their cerebral c-Fos counts were significantly lower. Radiation caused no such differences in rats that had not been pretreated with picrotoxin. We conclude that GSM-type radiation can induce seizures in rats following their facilitation by subconvulsive doses of picrotoxin, and that research should be pursued into the possibility that this kind of radiation may similarly affect brain function in human subjects with epileptic disorders.


Loughran SP, Wood AW, Barton JM, Croft RJ, Thompson B, Stough C. The effect of electromagnetic fields emitted by mobile phones on human sleep. Neuroreport. 16(17):1973-1976, 2005.

Previous research has suggested that exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields increases electroencephalogram spectral power in non-rapid eye movement sleep. Other sleep parameters have also been affected following exposure. We examined whether aspects of sleep architecture show sensitivity to electromagnetic fields emitted by digital mobile phone handsets. Fifty participants were exposed to electromagnetic fields for 30 min prior to sleep. Results showed a decrease in rapid eye movement sleep latency and increased electroencephalogram spectral power in the 11.5-12.25 Hz frequency range during the initial part of sleep following exposure. These results are evidence that mobile phone exposure prior to sleep may promote rapid eye movement sleep and modify the sleep electroencephalogram in the first non-rapid eye movement sleep period.


Maby E, Jeannes RL, Faucon G, Liegeois-Chauvel C, De Seze R. Effects of GSM signals on auditory evoked responses. Bioelectromagnetics. 2005 May 10; [Epub ahead of print] 

The article presents a study of the influence of radio frequency (RF) fields emitted by mobile phones on human cerebral activity. Our work was based on the study of Auditory Evoked Potentials (AEPs) recorded on the scalp of healthy humans and epileptic patients. The protocol allowed us to compare AEPs recorded with or without exposure to RFs. To get a reference, a control session was also introduced. In this study, the correlation coefficients computed between AEPs, as well as the correlation coefficients between spectra of AEPs were investigated to detect a possible difference due to RFs. A difference in the correlation coefficients computed in control and experimental sessions was observed, but it was difficult to deduce the effect of RFs on human health.


Maby E, Jeannes Rle B, Faucon G. Scalp localization of human auditory cortical activity modified by GSM electromagnetic fields. Int J Radiat Biol. 82(7):465-472, 2006.

Purpose: This study attempted to determine whether there is a localized effect of GSM (Global System for Mobile communications) microwaves by studying the Auditory Evoked Potentials (AEP) recorded at the scalp of nine healthy subjects and six epileptic patients.Materials and methods: We determined the influence of GSM RadioFrequency (RF) on parameters characterizing the AEP in time or/and frequency domains. A parameter selection method using SVM (Support Vector Machines)-based criteria allowed us to estimate those most altered by the radiofrequencies. The topography of the parameter modifications was computed to determine the localization of the radiofrequency influence. A statistical test was conducted for selected scalp areas, in order to determine whether there were significant localized alterations due to the RF.Results: The epileptic patients showed a lengthening of the scalp component N100 (100 ms latency) in the frontal area contralateral to the radiation, which may be due to an afferent tract alteration. For the healthy subjects, an amplitude increase of the P200 wave (200 ms latency) was identified in the frontal area.Conclusions: The present study suggests that radiofrequency fields emitted by mobile phones modify the AEP. Nevertheless, no direct link between these findings and RF-induced damages in brain function was established.


Maier R, Greter SE, Maier N. Effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields on cognitive processes - a pilot study on pulsed field interference with cognitive regeneration. Acta Neurol Scand. 110(1):46-52, 2004.

BACKGROUND: Due to the ubiquitous use of cellular phones much has been speculated on secondary effects of electromagnetic irradiation emitted by those. Additionally, several studies have reported vegetative alterations as well as effects on the neuronal and molecular levels in humans. Here, using a psycho-physiological test paradigm, we examined effects of exposure to pulsed electromagnetic fields on cognitive performance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 11 volunteers, we tested cognitive processing under field exposure (GSM standard) and under field-free conditions. To examine the hypothesized effect of pulsed fields, we applied an auditory discrimination task and determined the participant's current 'Order Threshold' value. Following a first test cycle, the volunteers had to relax for 50 min while being, or not, exposed to pulsed electromagnetic fields. Subsequently, the test was repeated. Data acquired before and after the resting phase were compared from both experimental conditions. RESULTS: We found that nine of the 11 test participants (81.8%) showed worse results in their auditory discrimination performance upon field exposure as compared with control conditions. Group data comparison revealed a statistical significance of P = 0.0105. CONCLUSION: We could show that the participants' cognitive performance was impaired after exposure to pulsed electromagnetic fields. With regard to this finding, we recommend that the use of cellular phones should be restricted generally and in particular in respect of physical hazard of high-risk groups, e.g. elderly, children and ill people.


Mann, K, Roschke, J,  Effects of pulsed high-frequency electromagnetic fields on human sleep. Neuropsychobiology 33(1):41-47, 1996.


In the present study we investigated the influence of pulsed high-frequency electromagnetic fields of digital mobile radio telephones on sleep in healthy humans. Besides a hypnotic effect with shortening of sleep onset latency, a REM suppressive effect with reduction of duration and percentage of REM sleep was found. Moreover, spectral analysis revealed qualitative alterations of the EEG signal during REM sleep with an increased spectral power density. Knowing the relevance of REM sleep for adequate information processing in the brain, especially concerning mnestic functions and learning processes, the results emphasize the necessity to carry out further investigations on the interaction of this type of electromagnetic fields and the human organism.





Mann, K, Wagner, P, Brunn, G, Hassan, F, Hiemke, C, Roschke, J, Effects of pulsed high-frequency electromagnetic fields on the neuroendocrine system. Neuroendocrinology 67(2):139-144, 1998.


The influence of pulsed high-frequency electromagnetic fields emitted from a circularly polarized antenna on the neuroendocrine system in healthy humans was investigated (900 MHz electromagnetic field, pulsed with 217 Hz, average power density 0.02 mW/cm2). Nocturnal hormone profiles of growth hormone (GH), cortisol, luteinizing hormone (LH) and melatonin were determined under polysomnographic control. An alteration in the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis activity was found with a slight, transient elevation in the cortisol serum level immediately after onset of field exposure which persisted for 1 h. For GH, LH and melatonin, no significant effects were found under exposure to the field compared to the placebo condition, regarding both total hormone production during the entire night and dynamic characteristics of the secretion pattern. Also the evaluation of the sleep EEG data revealed no significant alterations under field exposure, although there was a trend to an REM suppressive effect. The results indicate that weak high-frequency electromagnetic fields have no effects on nocturnal hormone secretion except for a slight elevation in cortisol production which is transient, pointing to an adaptation of the organism to the stimulus.



Papageorgiou CC, Nanou ED, Tsiafakis VG, Capsalis CN, Rabavilas AD. Gender related differences on the EEG during a simulated mobile phone signal. Neuroreport. 15(16):2557-2560, 2004.

The present study investigated the gender-related influence of electromagnetic fields (EMF), similar to that emitted by mobile phones, on brain activity. Ten women and nine men performed a short memory task (Wechsler test), both without (baseline) and with exposure to a 900 MHz signal. The EEG energy of the total waveform and the alpha, beta, delta and theta; rhythms were calculated from the recordings of 15 scalp electrodes. Baseline EEG energy of males was greater than that of females, while exposure to EMF decreased EEG energy of males and increased that of females. Memory performance was invariant to EMF exposure and gender influences. These findings indicate that EMF may exert a gender-related nfluence on brain activity.


Preece, AW, Iwi, G, Davies-Smith, A, Wesnes, K, Butler, S, Lim, E, Varey, A, Effect of a 915-MHz simulated mobile phone signal on cognitive function in man. Int J Radiat Biol 75(4):447-456, 1999.


PURPOSE: To examine whether a simulated mobile telephone transmission at 915 MHz has an effect on cognitive function in man. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-six subjects in two groups were each given two training sessions and then three test sessions in a randomized three-way cross-over design. About 1 W mean power at 915 MHz from a quarter-wave antenna mounted on a physical copy of an analogue phone, as a sine wave, or modulated at 217 Hz with 12.5% duty cycle, or no power, was applied to the left squamous temple region of the subjects while they undertook a series of cognitive function tests lasting approximately 25-30 min. The second group was investigated for sleep, consumption of alcohol and beverages, and any other substances that might affect performance. RESULTS: In both groups, the only test affected was the choice reaction time and this showed as an increase in speed (a decrease in reaction time). There were no changes in word, number or picture recall, or in spatial memory. While an effect of visit-order was evident suggesting a learning effect of repeat tests, the design of the study allowed for this. Additionally, there was no systematic error introduced as a result of consumption of substances or sleep time. CONCLUSIONS: There was evidence of an increase in responsiveness, strongly in the analogue and less in the digital simulation, in choice reaction time. This could be associated with an effect on the angular gyrus that acts as an interface between the visual and speech centres and which lies directly under and on the same side as the antenna. Such an effect could be consistent with mild localized heating, or possibly a non-thermal response, which is nevertheless power-dependent.


Smythe JW, Costall B. Mobile phone use facilitates memory in male, but not female, subjects. Neuroreport 14(2):243-246, 2003.

In the present study we report on the effects of mobile phone exposure on short- and long-term memory in male and female subjects. Subjects were university undergraduate students, and consisted of right-handed, males ( = 33) and females ( = 29). Individuals were randomly assigned to one of three experimental conditions: no phone exposure; inactive phone exposure; and active phone exposure. They were provided with a series of words to learn, structured in a two-dimensional shape, and given 3 min to memorise the words. After a 12 min distraction task, they were then asked to draw the shape (spatial) and place the correct words (semantic) into the appropriate boxes. One week later the same subjects were brought back to again redraw the shape and words. Error scores were determined and analysed by non-parametric techniques. The results show that males exposed to an active phone made fewer spatial errors than those exposed to an active phone condition, while females were largely unaffected. These results further indicate that mobile phone exposure has functional consequences for human subjects, and these effects appear to be sex-dependent.


Vecchio F, Babiloni C, Ferreri F, Curcio G, Fini R, Del Percio C, Rossini PM. Mobile phone emission modulates interhemispheric functional coupling of EEG alpha rhythms. Eur J Neurosci. 25(6):1908-1913, 2007.

We tested the working hypothesis that electromagnetic fields from mobile phones (EMFs) affect interhemispheric synchronization of cerebral rhythms, an important physiological feature of information transfer into the brain. Ten subjects underwent two electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings, separated by 1 week, following a crossover double-blind paradigm in which they were exposed to a mobile phone signal (global system for mobile communications; GSM). The mobile phone was held on the left side of the subject head by a modified helmet, and orientated in the normal position for use over the ear. The microphone was orientated towards the corner of the mouth, and the antenna was near the head in the parietotemporal area. In addition, we positioned another similar phone (but without battery) on the right side of the helmet, to balance the weight and to prevent the subject localizing the side of GSM stimulation (and consequently lateralizing attention). In one session the exposure was real (GSM) while in the other it was Sham; both sessions lasted 45 min. Functional interhemispheric connectivity was modelled using the analysis of EEG spectral coherence between frontal, central and parietal electrode pairs. Individual EEG rhythms of interest were delta (about 2-4 Hz), theta (about 4-6 Hz), alpha 1 (about 6-8 Hz), alpha 2 (about 8-10 Hz) and alpha 3 (about 10-12 Hz). Results showed that, compared to Sham stimulation, GSM stimulation modulated the interhemispheric frontal and temporal coherence at alpha 2 and alpha 3 bands. The present results suggest that prolonged mobile phone emission affects not only the cortical activity but also the spread of neural synchronization conveyed by interhemispherical functional coupling of EEG rhythms.


Von Klitzing, L, Low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields influence EEG of man. Phys. Medica 11:77-80, 1995.


New techniques using low-frequency puled electromagnetic fields (e.g., digital telecommunication) have raised the question for interference with the biological system of man.  EEG data of man sampled under the influence of these electromagnetic fields are altered extremely in the range of alpha-activity as well as during after exposure for some hours. The biological effect is induced by field intensities lower than the given international limiting values.


3. Neurological Function

Measured changes in brain chemistry and neurological function.



Bolshakov MA, Alekseev SI, Bursting responses of Lymnea neurons to microwave radiation. Bioelectromagnetics 13(2):119-129, 1992.

Microelectrode and voltage-clamp techniques were modified to record spontaneous electrical activity and ionic currents of Lymnea stagnalis neurons during exposure to a 900-MHz field in a waveguide-based apparatus. The field was pulse-modulated at repetition rates ranging from 0.5 to 110 pps, or it was applied as a continuous wave (CW). When subjected to pulsed waves (PW), rapid, burst-like changes in the firing rate of neurons occurred at SARs of a few W/kg. If the burst-like irregularity was present in the firing rate under control conditions, irradiation enhanced its probability of occurrence. The effect was dependent on modulation, but not on modulation frequency, and it had a threshold SAR near 0.5 W/kg. CW radiation had no effect on the firing rate pattern at the same SAR. Mediator-induced, current activation of acetylcholine, dopamine, serotonin, or gamma-aminobutyric-acid receptors of the neuronal soma was not altered during CW or PW exposures and, hence, could not have been responsible for the bursting effect.


Borbely, AA, Huber, R, Graf, T, Fuchs, B, Gallmann, E, Achermann, P, Pulsed high-frequency electromagnetic field affects human sleep and sleep electroencephalogram. Neurosci Lett  275(3):207-210, 1999.


To investigate whether the electromagnetic field (EMF) emitted by digital radiotelephone handsets affects the brain, healthy, young subjects were exposed during an entire night-time sleep episode to an intermittent radiation schedule (900 MHz; maximum specific absorption rate 1 W/kg) consisting of alternating 15-min on-15-min off intervals. Compared with a control night with sham exposure, the amount of waking after sleep onset was reduced from 18 to 12 min. Spectral power of the electroencephalogram in non-rapid eye movement sleep was increased. The maximum rise occurred in the 10-11 Hz and 13.5-14 Hz bands during the initial part of sleep and then subsided. The results demonstrate that pulsed high-frequency EMF in the range of radiotelephones may promote sleep and modify the sleep EEG.



Croft R, Chandler J, Burgess A, Barry R, Williams J, Clarke A. Acute mobile phone operation affects neural function in humans. Clin Neurophysiol 113(10):1623, 2002.

OBJECTIVES: Mobile phones (MP) are used extensively and yet little is known about the effects they may have on human physiology. There have been conflicting reports regarding the relation between MP use and the electroencephalogram (EEG). The present study suggests that this conflict may be due to methodological differences such as exposure durations, and tests whether exposure to an active MP affects EEG as a function of time.METHODS: Twenty-four subjects participated in a single-blind fully counterbalanced cross-over design, where both resting EEG and phase-locked neural responses to auditory stimuli were measured while a MP was either operating or turned off.RESULTS: MP exposure altered resting EEG, decreasing 1-4Hz activity (right hemisphere sites), and increasing 8-12Hz activity as a function of exposure duration (midline posterior sites). MP exposure also altered early phase-locked neural responses, attenuating the normal response decrement over time in the 4-8Hz band, decreasing the response in the 1230Hz band globally and as a function of time, and increasing midline frontal and lateral posterior responses in the 30-45Hz band.CONCLUSIONS: Active MPs affect neural function in humans and do so as a function of exposure duration. The temporal nature of this effect may contribute to the lack of consistent results reported in the literature.



Curcio G, Ferrara M, Moroni F, D'Inzeo G, Bertini M, De Gennaro L.
Is the brain influenced by a phone call? An EEG study of resting wakefulness. Neurosci Res. 2005 Aug 12; [Epub ahead of print]

We recorded the resting electroencephalogram of 20 healthy subjects in order to investigate the effect of electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure on EEG waking activity and its temporal development. The subjects were randomly assigned to two groups and exposed, in double-blind conditions, to a typical mobile phone signal (902.40MHz, modulated at 217Hz, with an average power of 0.25W) before or during the EEG recording session. The results show that, under real exposure as compared to baseline and sham conditions, EEG spectral power was influenced in some bins of the alpha band. This effect was greater when the EMF was on during the EEG recording session than before it. The present data lend further support to the idea that pulsed high-frequency electromagnetic fields can affect normal brain functioning, also if no conclusions can be drawn about the possible health effects.


D'Costa H, Trueman G, Tang L, Abdel-rahman U, Abdel-rahman W, Ong K, Cosic I. Human brain wave activity during exposure to radiofrequency field emissions from mobile phones.  Australas Phys Eng Sci Med. 26(4):162-167, 2003.

The aim of this study was to determine whether there is an effect of mobile phone electromagnetic field emissions on the human electroencephalograph (EEG). EEG recordings from ten awake subjects were taken during exposure to radiofrequency (RF) emissions from a mobile phone positioned behind the head. Two experimental trials were conducted. In the first trial, RF exposures were generated by a GSM mobile phone with the speaker disabled and configured to transmit at full-radiated power. During the second trial, exposures were generated by a non-modified GSM mobile phone in active standby mode. For each trial, subjects were exposed in five minute intervals to a randomized, interrupted sequence of five active and five sham exposures. The experiment was conducted under single-blind conditions. The average EEG band power in active exposure recordings was compared to corresponding sham recordings. Statistical tests indicated significant difference in the full-power mode trial within the EEG alpha (8-13 Hz) and beta (13-32 Hz) bands. A subsequent statistical analysis of median spectral power in discrete EEG rhythms revealed significant differences in 7 of the 32 distinct frequencies overall. In conclusion, the results of this study lend support to EEG effects from mobile phones activated in talk-mode.


Ilhan A, Gurel A, Armutcu F, Kamisli S, Iraz M, Akyol O, Ozen S. Ginkgo biloba prevents mobile phone-induced oxidative stress in rat brain. Clin Chim Acta.  340(1-2): 153-162, 2004.

BACKGROUND: The widespread use of mobile phones (MP) in recent years has raised the research activities in many countries to determine the consequences of exposure to the low-intensity electromagnetic radiation (EMR) of mobile phones. Since several experimental studies suggest a role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in EMR-induced oxidative damage in tissues, in this study, we investigated the effect of Ginkgo biloba (Gb) on MP-induced oxidative damage in brain tissue of rats. METHODS: Rats (EMR+) were exposed to 900 MHz EMR from MP for 7 days (1 h/day). In the EMR+Gb groups, rats were exposed to EMR and pretreated with Gb. Control and Gb-administrated groups were produced by turning off the mobile phone while the animals were in the same exposure conditions. Subsequently, oxidative stress markers and pathological changes in brain tissue were examined for each groups. RESULTS: Oxidative damage was evident by the: (i) increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) levels in brain tissue, (ii) decrease in brain superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities and (iii) increase in brain xanthine oxidase (XO) and adenosine deaminase (ADA) activities. These alterations were prevented by Gb treatment. Furthermore, Gb prevented the MP-induced cellular injury in brain tissue histopathologically. CONCLUSION: Reactive oxygen species may play a role in the mechanism that has been proposed to explain the biological side effects of MP, and Gb prevents the MP-induced oxidative stress to preserve antioxidant enzymes activity in brain tissue.






Koylu H, Mollaoglu H, Ozguner F, Nazyroglu M, Delibab N. Melatonin modulates 900 Mhz microwave-induced lipid peroxidation changes in rat brain. Toxicol Ind Health. 22(5):211-216, 2006.

Microwaves (MW) from cellular phones may affect biological systems by increasing free radicals, which may enhance lipid peroxidation levels of the brain, thus leading to oxidative damage. Melatonin is synthesized in and secreted by the pineal gland at night and exhibits anti-oxidant properties. Several studies suggest that supplementation with anti-oxidant can influence MW-induced brain damage. The present study was designed to determine the effects of MW on the brain lipid peroxidation system, and the possible protective effects of melatonin on brain degeneration induced by MW. Twenty-eight Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomly divided into three groups as follows: (1) sham-operated control group (N = 8); (2) study 900-MHz MW-exposed group (N = 8); and (3) 900-MHz MW-exposed+melatonin (100 microg/kg sc before daily MW exposure treated group) (N = 10). Cortex brain and hippocampus tissues were removed to study the levels of lipid peroxidation as malonyl dialdehyde. The levels of lipid peroxidation in the brain cortex and hippocampus increased in the MW group compared with the control group, although the levels in the hippocampus were decreased by MW+melatonin administration. The brain cortex lipid peroxidation levels were unaffected by melatonin treatment. We conclude that melatonin may prevent MW-induced oxidative changes in the hippocampus by streng




Marino AA, Nilsen E, Frilot C. Nonlinear changes in brain electrical activity due to cell phone radiation. Bioelectromagnetics  24(5):339-346, 2003.

We studied the effect of an electromagnetic field from a cellular telephone on brain electrical activity, using a novel analytical method based on a nonlinear model. The electroencephalogram (EEG) from rabbits was embedded in phase space and local recurrence plots were calculated and quantified using recurrence quantitation analysis to permit statistical comparisons between filtered segments of exposed and control epochs from individual rabbits. When the rabbits were exposed to the radiation from a standard cellular telephone (800 MHz band, 600 mW maximum radiated power) under conditions that simulated normal human use, the EEG was significantly affected in nine of ten animals studied. The effect occurred beginning about 100 ms after initiation of application of the field and lasted approximately 300 ms. In each case, the fields increased the randomness in the EEG. A control procedure ruled out the possibility that the observations were a product of the method of analysis. No differences were found between exposed and control epochs in any animal when the experiment was repeated after the rabbits had been sacrificed, indicating that absorption of radiation by the EEG electrodes could not account for the observed effect. No effect was seen when deposition of energy in the brain was minimized by repositioning the radiating antenna from the head to the chest, showing that the type of tissue that absorbed the energy determined the observed changes in the EEG. We conclude that, in normal use, the fields from a standard cellular telephone can alter brain function as a consequence of absorption of energy by the brain.




Mausset-Bonnefont AL, Hirbec H, Bonnefont X, Privat A, Vignon J, de Seze R.Acute exposure to GSM 900-MHz electromagnetic fields induces glial reactivity and biochemical modifications in the rat brain. Neurobiol Dis. 17(3):445-454, 2004.
The worldwide proliferation of mobile phones raises the question of the effects of 900-MHz electromagnetic fields (EMF) on the brain. Using a head-only exposure device in the rat, we showed that a 15-min exposure to 900-MHz pulsed microwaves at a high brain-averaged power of 6 W/kg induced a strong glial reaction in the brain. This effect, which suggests neuronal damage, was particularly pronounced in the striatum. Moreover, we observed significant and immediate effects on the K(d) and B(max) values of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and GABA(A) receptors as well as on dopamine transporters. Decrease of the amount of NMDA receptors at the postsynaptic membrane is also reported. Although we showed that the rat general locomotor behavior was not significantly altered on the short term, our results provide the first evidence for rapid cellular and molecular alterations in the rat brain after an acute exposure to high power GSM (Global System for Mobile communication) 900-MHz microwaves.





Persson BRR, Salford LG, Brun A, Blood-brain barrier permeability in rats exposed to electromagnetic fields used in wireless communication.  Wireless Network 3:455-461, 1997.


Biological effects of radio frequency electromagnetic fields (EMF) on the blood-brain barrier (BBB) have been studied in Fischer 344 rats of both sexes. The rats were not anesthetised during the exposure. The brains were perfused with saline for 3-4 minutes, and thereafter perfusion fixed with 4% formaldehyde for 5-6 minutes. Whole coronal sections of the brains were dehydrated and embedded in paraffin and sectioned at 5 micrometers. Albumin and fibinogen were demonstrated immunochemically and classified as normal versus pathological leakage. In the present investigation we exposed male and female Fischer 344 rats in a Transverse Electromagnetic Transmission line camber to microwaves of 915 MHz as continuous wave (CW) and pulse-modulated with different pulse power and at various time intervals. The CW-pulse power varied from 0.001 W to 10 W and the exposure time from 2 min to 960 min. In each experiment we exposed 4-6 rats with 2-4 controls randomly placed in excited and non-excited TEM cells, respectively. We have in total investigated 630 exposed rats at various modulation frequencies and 372 controls. The frequency of pathological rats is significantly increased (P< 0.0001) from 62/372 (ratio 0.17 + 0.02) for control rats to 244/630 (ratio: 0.39 + 0.043) in all exposed rats. Grouping the exposed animals according to the level or specific absorption energy (J/kg) give significant difference in all levels above 1.5 J/kg. The exposure was 915 MHz microwaves either pulse modulated (PW) at 217 Hz with 0.57 ms pulse width, at 50 Hz with 6.6 ms pulse width or continuous wave (CW). The frequency of pathological rats (0.17) among controls in the various groups is not significantly different. The frequency of pathological rats was 170/480 (0.35 + 0.03) among rats exposed to pulse modulated (PW) and 74/149 (0.50 + 0.07) among rats exposed to continuous wave exposure (CW). These results are both highly significantly different to their corresponding controls (p< 0.0001) and the frequency of pathological rats after exposure to pulsed radiation (PW) is significantly less (p< 0.002) than after exposure to continuous wave radiation (CW).




Testylier G , Tonduli L, Malabiau R, Debouzy JC. Effects of exposure to low level radiofrequency fields on acetylcholine release in hippocampus of freely moving rats. Bioelectromagnetics 23:249-255, 2002.


Some central cholinergic effects have been reported in animals after acute exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic field at low intensity. We studied acetylcholine (ACh) release in the brain of freely moving rats exposed for 1 h during the day to a 2.45 GHz continuous wave radiofrequency field (RF) (2 or 4 mW/cm2) or exposed for 1 or 14 h during the night to a 800 MHz field modulated at 32 Hz (AM 200 mW/cm2). Measurements were performed by microdialysis using a membrane implanted through the upper CA1 region of the hippocampus. After irradiation with the 2.45 GHz RF, rats exposed at 2 mW/cm2 did not show a significant modification of Ach release, whereas those exposed at 4 mW/cm2 showed a significant 40% decrease in mean ACh release from hippocampus. This decrease was maximal at 5 h post exposure. Exposure to the 800 MHz RF for 1 h did not cause any significant effect, but exposure for 14 hrs induced a significant 43% decrease in ACh release during the period 11 p.m.-4 a.m. compared to control rats. In the control group we observed an increase of ACh release at the beginning of the night, which was linked to the waking period of rats. This normal increase was disturbed in rats exposed overnight to the 800 MHz RF. This work indicates that neurochemical modification of the hippocampal cholinergic system can be observed during and after an exposure to low intensity RF.



Vorobyov V, Pesic V, Janac B, Prolic Z. Repeated exposure to low-level extremely low frequency-modulated microwaves affects baseline and scopolamine-modified electroencephalograms in freely moving rats. Int J Radiat Biol. 80(9):691-698, 2004.

PURPOSE: To compare in the electroencephalogram of rats the effects of scopolamine (an acetylcholine receptor antagonist) alone and after repeated exposure to low-level microwaves modulated at extremely low frequency. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Averaged frequency spectra (0.5-30 Hz) of the electroencephalogram were studied in freely moving rats with carbon electrodes implanted into the somatosensory cortex. The rats were repeatedly (3 days, 30 min day(-1)) exposed to low-intensity (approximately = 0.3 mW cm(-2)) microwaves (915 MHz, 20-ms pulse duration), amplitude modulated (square-wave) at extremely low frequency (4 Hz). RESULTS: The exposure to extremely low frequency microwaves alone significantly enhanced the fast electroencephalographic rhythms (18-30 Hz). This effect was observed neither in subsequent sham-exposure experiment nor in radiation-naive animals. In the microwave-exposed rats, scopolamine (0.1 mg kg(-1), subcutaneously) did not cause a slowing in the electroencephalogram that was shown in non-exposed rats. A similarity between the scopolamine-induced electroencephalogram effect in the microwave-exposed rats and that of physostigmine (enhancing the acetylcholine level in the brain) in radiation-naive animals was noted. This paradoxical phenomenon stimulates new experimentation for understanding its mechanism(s). CONCLUSIONS: The data obtained provide additional evidence that repeated low-level exposure to extremely low frequency microwaves can modify an activity of cholinergic system in the brain.




Wang Q, Cao ZJ, Bai XT.  [Effect of 900 MHz electromagnetic fields on the expression of GABA receptor of cerebral cortical neurons in postnatal rats] Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 34(5):546-548, 2005.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of 900 MHz microwave electromagnetic fields (EMF) on the expression of neurotransmitter GABA receptor of cerebral cortical neurons in postnatal rats. METHODS: Neurons were exposed to 900 MHz continuous microwave EMF (SAR = 1.15 - 3.22mW/g) for 2 hours per day in 6 consecutive days and for 12 hours at one time. GABA receptor was chosen to be the biological end. RESULTS: Significant changes had been observed in exposed neurons in the expression of GABA receptor. (P < 0.01) . CONCLUSION: The expression of GABA receptor of neurons were significantly regulated by 900 MHz microwave, and a power "window" effect was observed in the exposed neurons.



Xu S, Ning W, Xu Z, Zhou S, Chiang H, Luo J. Chronic exposure to GSM 1800-MHz microwaves reduces excitatory synaptic activity in cultured hippocampal neurons. Neurosci Lett. 2006 Jan 25; [Epub ahead of print]

The world wide proliferation of mobile phones raises the concern about the health effects of 1800-MHz microwaves on the brain. The present study assesses the effects of microwave exposure on the function of cultured hippocampal neurons of rats using whole cell patch-clamp analysis combined with immunocytochemistry. We showed that chronic exposure (15min per day for 8 days) to Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) 1800-MHz microwaves at specific absorption rate (SAR) of 2.4W/kg induced a selective decrease in the amplitude of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-soxazole propionic acid (AMPA) miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs), whereas the frequency of AMPA mEPSCs and the amplitude of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) mEPSCs did not change. Furthermore, the GSM microwave treatment decreased the expression of postsynaptic density 95 (PSD95) in cultured neurons. Our results indicated that 2.4W/kg GSM 1800-MHz microwaves may reduce excitatory synaptic activity and the number of excitatory synapses in cultured rat hippocampal neurons.




Zhao TY, Zou SP, Knapp PE Exposure to cell phone radiation up-regulates apoptosis genes in primary cultures of neurons and astrocytes. Neurosci Lett. 2006 Dec 20; [Epub ahead of print].

The health effects of cell phone radiation exposure are a growing public concern. This study investigated whether expression of genes related to cell death pathways are dysregulated in primary cultured neurons and astrocytes by exposure to a working Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) cell phone rated at a frequency of 1900MHz. Primary cultures were exposed to cell phone emissions for 2h. We used array analysis and real-time RT-PCR to show up-regulation of caspase-2, caspase-6 and Asc (apoptosis associated speck-like protein containing a card) gene expression in neurons and astrocytes. Up-regulation occurred in both "on" and "stand-by" modes in neurons, but only in "on" mode in astrocytes. Additionally, astrocytes showed up-regulation of the Bax gene. The effects are specific since up-regulation was not seen for other genes associated with apoptosis, such as caspase-9 in either neurons or astrocytes, or Bax in neurons. The results show that even relatively short-term exposure to cell phone radiofrequency emissions can up-regulate elements of apoptotic pathways in cells derived from the brain, and that neurons appear to be more sensitive to this effect than astrocytes.


Beason RC, Semm P. Responses of neurons to an amplitude modulated microwave stimulus. Neurosci Lett 333(3):175-178, 2002.

In this study we investigated the effects of a pulsed radio frequency signal similar to the signal produced by global system for mobile communication telephones (900 MHz carrier, modulated at 217 Hz) on neurons of the avian brain. We found that such stimulation resulted in changes in the amount of neural activity by more than half of the brain cells. Most (76%) of the responding cells increased their rates of firing by an average 3.5-fold. The other responding cells exhibited a decrease in their rates of spontaneous activity Such responses indicate potential effects on humans using hand-held cellular phones.

4. Observed whole Body response



Dasdag, S, Ketani, MA, Akdag, Z, Ersay, AR, Sar,i I, Demirtas ,OC, Celik, MS, Whole-body microwave exposure emitted by cellular phones and testicular function of rats. Urol Res 27(3):219-223, 1999.


This study investigated whether there are adverse effects due to microwave exposure emitted by cellular phones in male rats. Eighteen Wistar Albino rats were separated into three groups, a sham group and two experimental groups. The rats were confined in Plexiglas cages and cellular phones were placed 0.5 cm under the cages. In the first experimental group, cellular phones were in standby position for 2 h. In the second experimental group, phones were turned to the speech position three times each for 1 min duration over 2 h. Rats in the first and second experimental groups were exposed to microwaves emitted by phones for 2 h/day for a duration of 1 month. After the last exposure the rats were killed. Brain, eyes, ears, liver, heart, lungs, stomach, kidneys, testes, small and large intestines and skin of the rats were observed histologically. The decrease of epididymal sperm counts in the speech groups were not found to be significant (P > 0.05). Differences in terms of normal and abnormal sperm forms were not observed (P > 0.05). Histological changes were especially observed in the testes of rats of the speech groups. Seminiferous tubular diameter of rat testes in the standby and speech groups was found to be lower than the sham group (P < 0.05). Rectal temperatures of rats in the speech group were found to be higher than the sham and standby groups (P < 0.05). The rectal temperatures of rats before and after exposure were also found to be significantly higher in the speech group (P < 0.05). Specific absorption rate (SAR) was determined as 0.141 W/kg.




Singh B, Bate LA, Responses of pulmonary intravascular macrophages to 915-MHz microwave radiation: ultrastructural and cytochemical study. Anat Rec 246(3):343-355, 1996.

BACKGROUND: Microwave (MW) radiation is being increasingly used as a source of heat supplementation during early postnatal development of pigs. Although MW radiation does not cause deleterious physiological effects, no specific information exists regarding its impact on immune cells such as macrophages. Pulmonary intravascular macrophages (PIMs) are emerging as important inflammatory cells due to their endocytic and secretory potential. An in vivo study was conducted to evaluate the effects of infrared, and low and high power MW radiation on the PIMs of pigs. METHODS: Pigs were exposed to infrared (IR), low MW (LMW; 6.1mW cm-2), and high MW (HMW; 11.4mW cm-2) radiation at 915 MHz (n = 2 for each treatment) for 24 hr. The controls (n = 2) were exposed to natural light for the same period of time. Lung tissues were processed for ultrastructural examination and acid phosphatase (AcPase) cytochemistry. In addition, rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) as a fraction of cytosol of the PIMs was counted. RESULTS: Ultrastructural and numerical data suggested enhanced secretory activity in the PIMs of LMW-treated pigs as indicated by the increased RER:cytoplasm ratio, prominent Golgi complex profiles, and accumulation of secretory vesicles in conjunction with microtubules as compared with the control, IR, and HMW-exposed pigs. High MW treatment induced some damage to pulmonary interstitium as deduced from the presence of extracellular AcPase precipitates and disrupted collagen matrix. Intracellular globules were noticed in the PIMs of IR and LMW-treated pigs but not in the control and HMW-radiated animals. CONCLUSIONS: Elaboration of structural signs of secretory activity in the PIMs by LMW radiation in the absence of pulmonary pathological changes indicates its potential for cell activation in addition to the already established role of LMW in heat supplementation. This activation could be due to either increased core body temperature or initiation of intracellular signaling by the LMW radiation. This study also shows that the HMW radiation is capable of inducing pathology in the form of changes in the pulmonary interstitial matrix and may not be a good source of supplementary heat.



5. Measured Changes to body Chemistry



Aksen F, Dasdag S, Akdag MZ, Askin M, Dasdag MM. The effects of whole body cell phone exposure on the T1 relaxation times and trace elements in the serum of rats. Electromag. Biol. Med. 23:7-11, 2004.

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of radiofrequency radiation emitted from cellular phones on: (1) trace elements such as manganese, iron, copper, zinc, (2) T1 relaxation times in serum, and (3) rectal temperature of rats exposed to microwave radiation emitted from cellular phones. Sixteen Spraque-Dawley rats were separated into two groups of eight, one sham-exposed (control) and one exposed (experimental). The rats were confined in Plexiglas cages and a cellular phone was placed 0.5 cm under the cage. For the experimental group, cellular phones were activated 20 min per day, 7 days a week, for 1 month. For the control group, a cellular phone placed beneath the cage for 20 min a day was turned off. Rectal temperatures were measured weekly. For 250-mW-radiated powers, the whole body average specified absorption rate (SAR) (rms) is 0.52 W/kg and 1-g-averaged peak SAR (rms) is 3.13 W/kg. The Mann-Whitney U test was used for statistical comparisons of groups. T1 relaxation time and the values of iron and copper in the serum of the experimental group were not changed compared to the control group (p > 0.05). However, manganese and zinc values in the serum of the experimental group were significantly different from the control group (p < 0.05). The difference in rectal temperature measured before and after exposure in the experimental groups was not statistically different from control (p > 0.05).



Barteri M, Pala A, Rotella S. Structural and kinetic effects of mobile phone microwaves on acetylcholinesterase activity. Biophys Chem. 113(3):245-253, 2005.

The present study provides evidence that "in vitro" simple exposure of an aqueous solution of electric eel acetylcholinesterase (EeAChE; EC to cellular phone emission alters its enzymatic activity. This paper demonstrates, by combining different experimental techniques, that radio frequency (RF) radiations irreversibly affect the structural and biochemical characteristics of an important CNS enzyme. These results were obtained by using a commercial cellular phone to reproduce the reality of the human exposition. This experimental procedure provided surprising effects collected practically without experimental errors because they were obtained comparing native and irradiated sample of the same enzyme solution. Although these results cannot be used to conclude whether exposure to RF during the use of cellular phone can lead to any hazardous health effect, they may be a significant first step towards further verification of these effects on other "ex vivo" or "in vivo" biological systems.



Koyu A, Cesur G, Ozguner F, Akdogan M, Mollaoglu H, Ozen S. Effects of 900MHz electromagnetic field on TSH and thyroid hormones in rats. Toxicol Lett. 157(3):257-262, 2005b.

In this study, the effects of exposure to a 900megahertz (MHz) electromagnetic field (EMF) on serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and triiodothronine-thyroxin (T(3)-T(4)) hormones levels of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were studied. Thirty rats were used in three independent groups, 10 of which were control (without stress and EMF), 10 of which were exposed to 900MHz EMF and 10 of which were sham-exposed. The exposures were performed 30min/day, for 5days/week for 4 weeks to 900MHz EMF. Sham-exposed animals were kept under the same environmental conditions as the study groups except with no EMF exposure. The concentration of TSH and T(3)-T(4) hormones in the rat serum was measured by using an immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) method for TSH and a radio-immunoassay (RIA) method for T(3) and T(4) hormones. TSH values and T(3)-T(4) at the 900MHz EMF group were significantly lower than the sham-exposed group (p<0.01). There were no statistically significant differences in serum TSH values and T(3)-T(4) hormone concentrations between the control and the sham-exposed group (p>0.05). These results indicate that 900MHz EMF emitted by cellular telephones decrease serum TSH and T(3)-T(4) levels.


Leszczynski D, Joenväärä S,  Reivinen J, Kuokka R,  Non-thermal activation of the hsp27/p38MAPK stress pathway by mobile phone radiation in human endothelial cells: Molecular mechanism for cancer- and blood-brain barrier-related effects.  Differentiation 70:120 - 129, 2002.


We have examined whether non-thermal exposures of cultures of the human endothelial cell line EA.hy926 to 900 MHz GSM mobile phone microwave radiation could activate stress response. Results obtained demonstrate that 1-hour non-thermal exposure of EA.hy926 cells changes the phosphorylation status of numerous, yet largely unidentified, proteins. One of the affected proteins was identified as heat shock protein-27 (hsp27). Mobile phone exposure caused a transient increase in phosphorylation of hsp27, an effect which was prevented by SB203580, a specific inhibitor of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK). Also, mobile phone exposure caused transient changes in the protein expression levels of hsp27 and p38MAPK. All these changes were non-thermal effects because, as determined using temperature probes, irradiation did not alter the temperature of cell cultures, which remained throughout the irradiation period at 37±0.3°C. Changes in the overall pattern of protein phosphorylation suggest that mobile phone radiation activates a variety of cellular signal transduction pathways, among them the hsp27/p38MAPK stress response pathway. Based on the known functions of hsp27, we put forward the hypothesis that mobile phone radiation-induced activation of hsp27 may (i) facilitate the development of brain cancer by inhibiting the cytochrome c/caspase-3 apoptotic pathway and (ii) cause an increase in blood-brain barrier permeability through stabilization of endothelial cell stress fibers. We postulate that these events, when occurring repeatedly over a long period of time, might become a health hazard because of the possible accumulation of brain tissue damage. Furthermore, our hypothesis suggests that other brain damaging factors may co-participate in mobile phone radiation-induced effects.



Moustafa YM, Moustafa RM, Belacy A, Abou-El-Ela SH, Ali FM.
Effects of acute exposure to the radiofrequency fields of cellular phones on plasma lipid peroxide and antioxidase activities in human erythrocytes. J Pharm Biomed Anal 26(4):605-608, 2001.
Radiofrequency fields of cellular phones may affect biological systems by increasing free radicals, which appear mainly to enhance lipid peroxidation, and by changing the antioxidase activities of human blood thus leading to oxidative stress. To test this, we have investigated the effect of acute exposure to radiofrequency fields of commercially available cellular phones on some parameters indicative of oxidative stress in 12 healthy adult male volunteers. Each volunteer put the phone in his pocket in standby position with the keypad facing the body. The parameters measured were lipid peroxide and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), total glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and catalase. The results obtained showed that the plasma level of lipid peroxide was significantly increased after 1, 2 and 4 h of exposure to radiofrequency fields of the cellular phone in standby position. Moreover, the activities of SOD and GSH-Px in human erythrocytes showed significant reduction while the activity of catalase in human erythrocytes did not decrease significantly. These results indicate that acute exposure to radiofrequency fields of commercially available cellular phones may modulate the oxidative stress of free radicals by enhancing lipid peroxidation and reducing the activation of SOD and GSH-Px, which are free radical scavengers. Therefore, these results support the interaction of radiofrequency fields of cellular phones with biological systems.


Weisbrot D, Lin H, Ye L, Blank M, Goodman R. Effects of mobile phone radiation on reproduction and development in Drosophila melanogaster. J Cell Biochem 89(1):48-55, 2003.

In this report we examined the effects of a discontinuous radio frequency (RF) signal produced by a GSM multiband mobile phone (900/1,900 MHz; SAR approximately 1.4 W/kg) on Drosophila melanogaster, during the 10-day developmental period from egg laying through pupation. As found earlier with low frequency exposures, the non-thermal radiation from the GSM mobile phone increased numbers of offspring, elevated hsp70 levels, increased serum response element (SRE) DNA-binding and induced the phosphorylation of the nuclear transcription factor, ELK-1. The rapid induction of hsp70 within minutes, by a non-thermal stress, together with identified components of signal transduction pathways, provide sensitive and reliable biomarkers that could serve as the basis for realistic mobile phone safety guidelines.



Yariktas M, Doner F, Ozguner F, Gokalp O, Dogru H, Delibas N. Nitric oxide level in the nasal and sinus mucosa after exposure to electromagnetic field. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 132(5):713-716, 2005.

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in nitric oxide (NO) level in the nasal and paranasal sinus mucosa after exposure radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (EMF). STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly grouped as follows: EMF group (group I; n, 10), EMF group in which melatonin received (group II; n, 10) and the control (sham operated) group (group III; n, 10). Groups I and II were exposed to a 900 MHz. Oral melatonin was given in group II. Control rats (group III) were also placed in the tube as the exposure groups, but without exposure to EMF. At the end of 2 weeks, the rats were sacrificed, and the nasal and paranasal sinus mucosa dissected. NO was measured in nasal and paranasal mucosa. RESULTS: The nasal and paranasal sinus mucosa NO levels of group I were significantly higher than those of the control group (group III) ( P < 0.05). However, there was no statistically significant difference between group II and the control group (group III) regarding NO output ( P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Exposure to EMF released by mobile phones (900 MHz) increase NO levels in the sinus and nasal mucosa. SIGNIFICANCE: Increased NO levels may act as a defense mechanism and presumably related to tissue damage. In addition, melatonin may have beneficial effect to prevent these changes in the mucosa.



Yurekli AI, Ozkan M, Kalkan T, Saybasili H, Tuncel H, Atukeren P, Gumustas K, Seker S. GSM Base Station Electromagnetic Radiation and Oxidative Stress in Rats. Electromagn Biol Med. 2006;25(3):177-188, 2006.


The ever increasing use of cellular phones and the increasing number of associated base stations are becoming a widespread source of nonionizing electromagnetic radiation. Some biological effects are likely to occur even at low-level EM fields. In this study, a gigahertz transverse electromagnetic (GTEM) cell was used as an exposure environment for plane wave conditions of far-field free space EM field propagation at the GSM base transceiver station (BTS) frequency of 945 MHz, and effects on oxidative stress in rats were investigated. When EM fields at a power density of 3.67 W/m2 (specific absorption rate = 11.3 mW/kg), which is well below current exposure limits, were applied, MDA (malondialdehyde) level was found to increase and GSH (reduced glutathione) concentration was found to decrease significantly (p < 0.0001). Additionally, there was a less significant (p = 0.0190) increase in SOD (superoxide dismutase)



Zeng QL, Weng Y, Chen GD, Lu DQ, Chiang H, Xu ZP  [Effects of GSM 1800 MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic fields on protein expression profile of human breast cancer cell MCF-7.] Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 40(3):153-158, 2006.

[Article in Chinese]

OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of GSM 1800 MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF EMF) exposure on protein expression profile of human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7), as to exploring the possible effects on normal cell physiological function. METHODS: MCF-7 cells were continuously or intermittently (5 minutes field on followed by 10 minutes off) exposed to RF EMF for different duration (1 hour, 3 hours, 6 hours, 12 hours, or 24 hours) at an average specific absorption rate (SAR) of 3.5 W/kg. The extracted proteins were separated by 2-dimensional electrophoresis and the protein-spot distribution of the sliver-stained gels was analyzed by using PDQuest software 7.1. Each experiment was repeated three times. RESULTS: On the average, around 1100 proteins were detected using pH 4 - 7 IPG strip. There were no differential proteins found under continuous exposure at SAR of 3.5 W/kg for 6 hours. Under other exposure conditions, we found various differentially expressed proteins in exposure groups as compared with the sham-exposed controls. Especially in 3 hours intermittent exposure and 12 hours continuous exposure, eighteen and seven differential proteins were detected, respectively. The categories and functions of these differentially expressed proteins were analyzed by searching of SWISS-PROT protein database, which suggested that these proteins should be related to the functions of biosynthesization, signal transduction, and DNA damage and repair. CONCLUSIONS: Data indicated that the protein expression changes induced by RF radiation might depend on exposure duration and mode. Many biological processes might be affected by RF exposure.


6. Measured Cellular Chemistry alterations

Gene expression, DNA synthesis, heat-shock proteins, RNA, etc.



Czyz J , Guan  K, Zeng  Q, Nikolova  T, Meister  A, Schönborn  F, Schuderer  J, Kuster  N, Wobus  AM, High frequency electromagnetic fields (GSM signals) affect gene expression levels in tumor suppressor p53-deficient embryonic stem cells.  Bioelectromagnetics 25:296-307, 2004.


Effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) simulating exposure to the Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) signals were studied using pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells in vitro. Wild-type ES cells and ES cells deficient for the tumor suppressor p53 were exposed to pulse modulated EMF at 1.71 GHz, lower end of the uplink band of GSM 1800, under standardized and controlled conditions, and transcripts of regulatory genes were analyzed during in vitro differentiation. Two dominant GSM modulation schemes (GSM-217 and GSM-Talk), which generate temporal changes between GSM-Basic (active during talking phases) and GSM-DTX (active during listening phases thus simulating a typical conversation), were applied to the cells at and below the basic safety limits for local exposures as defined for the general public by the International Commission on Nonionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). GSM-217 EMF induced a significant upregulation of mRNA levels of the heat shock protein, hsp70 of p53-deficient ES cells differentiating in vitro, paralleled by a low and transient increase of c-jun, c-myc, and p21 levels in p53-deficient, but not in wild-type cells. No responses were observed in either cell type after EMF exposure to GSM-Talk applied at similar slot-averaged specific absorption rates (SAR), but at lower time-averaged SAR values. Cardiac differentiation and cell cycle characteristics were not affected in embryonic stem and embryonic carcinoma cells after exposure to GSM-217 EMF signals. Our data indicate that the genetic background determines cellular responses to GSM modulated EMF.



Di Carlo A, White N, Guo F, Garrett P, Litovitz T.  Chronic electromagnetic field exposure decreases HSP70 levels and lowers cytoprotection. J. Cell. Biochem. 84: 447-454, 2002.

Electromagnetic field (EMF) exposures have been shown to induce heat shock proteins (HSPs), which help to maintain the conformation of cellular proteins during periods of stress. We have previously reported that short-term exposure of chick embryos to either 60 Hz (extremely low frequency: ELF), or radio-frequency (RF: 915 MHz) EMFs induce protection against hypoxia. Experiments presented in the current report are based on a study in which long-term (4 days), continuous exposure to ELF-EMFs decreased protection against ultraviolet radiation. Based on this result, it was hypothesized that de-protection against hypoxia should also occur following long-term, continuous, or daily, repeated exposures to EMFs. To test this hypothesis, chick embryos were exposed to ELF-EMFs (8 T) continuously for 4 days, or to ELF or RF (3.5 mW incident power)- EMFs repeated daily (20, 30, or 60 min once or twice daily for 4 days). Several of the exposure protocols yielded embryos that had statistically significant decreases in protection against hypoxic stress (continuous and 30 or 60 min ELF twice daily; or 30 or 60 min once daily RF). This is consistent with our finding that following 4 days of ELF-EMF exposure, HSP70 levels decline by 27% as compared to controls. In addition, the superposition of ELF-EM noise, previously shown to minimize ELF-EMF induced hypoxia protection, inhibited hypoxia de-protection caused by long term, continuous ELF or daily, repeated RF exposures. This EMF-induced decrease in HSP70 levels and resulting decline in cytoprotection suggests a mechanism by which daily exposure (such as might be experienced by mobile phone users) could enhance the probability of cancer and other diseases.


Donnellan M, McKenzie DR, French PW, Effects of exposure to electromagnetic radiation at 835 MHz on growth, morphology and secretory characteristics of a mast cell analogue, RBL-2H3. Cell Biol Int 21:427-439, 1997.

A mast cell line, RBL-2H3, was exposed to 835 MHz for 20 minutes, three times per day for 7 days at a power density of 8.1 +/- 3 mW/cm2. From day 4 onwards, it was observed that the rate of DNA synthesis and cell replication increased, that actin distribution and cell morphology became altered, and the amount of beta-hexosaminidase (a marker of granule secretion) released in response to a calcium ionophore was significantly enhanced, in comparison to unexposed cultures. There were no effects seen on levels of cytoskeletal protein synthesis or of beta-actin mRNA. Morphological changes persisted following subculture for at least 7 days in the absence of further exposure. It is hypothesized that effects of exposure to an electromagnetic field at 835 MHz may be mediated via a signal transduction pathway.


French PW, Donnellan M, McKenzie DR, Electromagnetic radiation at 835 MHz changes the morphology and inhibits proliferation of a human astrocytoma cell line. Bioelectrochem Bioenerg 43:13-18, 1997.


A human astrocytoma cell line, U-87 MG, was exposed to 835 MHz electromagnetic radiation for 20 min, 3 times per day for 7 days, at a power density of either 40+15 mWcm-2 or 8.1 + 3 mWcm-2.  At the low power density, it was observed that the rate of DNA synthesis decreased, and that the cells flattened and spread out in comparison to unexposed culture. At 40 mWcm-2, there were no effects seen on cell proliferation, but alteration in cell morphology included increased cell spreading and also the appearance of actin-containing blebs at localized sites on the membrane. It is hypothesised that 835 MHz radiation at low power density may be affecting a signal transduction pathway involved in cell proliferation.




Goswami PC, Albee LD, Parsian AJ, Baty JD, Moros EG, Pickard WF, Roti Roti JL, Hunt CR, Proto-oncogene mRNA levels and activities of multiple transcription factors in C3H 10T 1/2 murine embryonic fibroblasts exposed to 835.62 and 847.74 MHz cellular phone communication frequency radiation. Radiat Res 151(3):300-309, 1999.


This study was designed to determine whether two differently modulated

radiofrequencies of the type generally used in cellular phone communications

could elicit a general stress response in a biological system. The two modulations and frequencies studied were a frequency-modulated continuous wave (FMCW) with a carrier frequency of 835.62 MHz and a code division multiple-access (CDMA) modulation centered on 847.74 MHz. Changes in proto-oncogene expression, determined by measuring Fos, Jun, and Myc mRNA levels as well as by the DNA-binding activity of the AP1, AP2 and NF-kappaB transcription factors, were used as indicators of a general stress response. The effect of radiofrequency exposure on proto-oncogene expression was assessed (1) in exponentially growing C3H 10T 1/2 mouse embryo fibroblasts during their transition to plateau phase and (2) during transition of serum-deprived cells to the proliferation cycle after serum stimulation. Exposure of serum-deprived cells to 835.62 MHz FMCW or 847.74 MHz CDMA microwaves (at an average specific absorption rate, SAR, of 0.6 W/kg) did not significantly change the kinetics of proto-oncogene expression after serum stimulation. Similarly, these exposures did not affect either the Jun and Myc mRNA levels or the DNA-binding activity of AP1, AP2 and NF-kappaB in exponential cells during transit to plateau-phase growth. Therefore, these results suggest that the radiofrequency exposure is unlikely to elicit a general stress response in cells of this cell line under these conditions. However, statistically significant increases (approximately 2-fold, P = 0.001) in Fos mRNA levels were detected in exponential cells in transit to the plateau phase and in plateau-phase cells exposed to 835.62

MHz FMCW microwaves. For 847.74 MHz CDMA exposure, the increase was 1.4-fold (P = 0.04). This increase in Fos expression suggests that expression of specific genes could be affected by radiofrequency exposure.



Harvey C, French PW, Effects on protein kinase C and gene expression in a human mast cell line, HMC-1, following microwave exposure. Cell Biol Int 23(11):739-748, 2000.


We used a resonant cavity which delivered a continuous wave exposure at 864.3 MHz at an average specific absorption rate (SAR) of 7 W/kg to determine non-thermal biological effects of microwave exposure. A human mast cell line, HMC-1, was used as the biological target. Cells were given three exposures each of 20-min duration daily for 7 days. The temperature of the cell culture medium during the exposure fell to 26.5 degrees C. Effects were seen on localization of protein kinase C, and expression of three genes of 588 screened. The affected genes included the proto-oncogene c-kit, the transcription factor Nucleoside diphosphate kinase B and the apoptosis-associated gene DAD-1. Stress response genes were variably upregulated. No significant effect on morphology or on F-actin distribution was detected. We conclude that low-power microwave exposure may act on HMC-1 cells by altering gene expression via a mechanism involving activation of protein kinase C, and at temperatures well below those known to induce a heat shock response.




Irmak MK, Fadillioglu E, Gulec M, Erdogan H, Yagmurca M, Akyol O. Effects of electromagnetic radiation from a cellular telephone on the oxidant and antioxidant levels in rabbits. Cell Biochem Funct. 20(4):279-283, 2002.

The number of reports on the effects induced by electromagnetic radiation (EMR) in various cellular systems is still increasing. Until now no satisfactory mechanism has been proposed to explain the biological effects of this radiation. Oxygen free radicals may play a role in mechanisms of adverse effects of EMR. This study was undertaken to investigate the influence of electromagnetic radiation of a digital GSM mobile telephone (900 MHz) on oxidant and antioxidant levels in rabbits. Adenosine deaminase, xanthine oxidase, catalase, myeloperoxidase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase activities as well as nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde levels were measured in sera and brains of EMR-exposed and sham-exposed rabbits. Serum SOD activity increased, and serum NO levels decreased in EMR-exposed animals compared to the sham group. Other parameters were not changed in either group. This finding may indicate the possible role of increased oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of adverse effect of EMR. Decreased NO levels may also suggest a probable role of NO in the adverse effect.



Irmak MK, Oztas E, Yagmurca M, Fadillioglu E, Bakir B. Effects of electromagnetic radiation from a cellular telephone on epidermal Merkel cells. J Cutan Pathol. 30(2):135-138, 2003.

The number of reports on the effects induced by electromagnetic radiation (EMR) from cellular telephones in various cellular systems is still increasing. Until now, no satisfactory mechanism has been proposed to explain the biological effects of this radiation except a role suggested for mast cells. Merkel cells may also play a role in the mechanisms of biological effects of EMR. This study was undertaken to investigate the influence of EMR from a cellular telephone (900 MHz) on Merkel cells in rats. A group of rats was exposed to a cellular telephone in speech position for 30 min. Another group of rats was sham-exposed under the same environmental conditions for 30 min. Exposure led to significantly higher exocytotic activity in Merkel cells compared with the sham exposure group. This finding may indicate the possible role of Merkel cells in the pathophysiology of the effects of EMR.




Kwee S, Raskmark P,  Changes in cell proliferation due to environmental non-ionizing radiation 2. Microwave radiation. Bioelectrochem Bioenerg 44(2) 251-255, 1998.


Due to the use of mobile telephones, there is an increased exposure of the environment to weak radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields, emitted by these devices. This study was undertaken to investigate if the microwave radiation from these fields will have a similar effect on cell proliferation as weak electromagnetic (ELF) fields. The field was generated by signal simulation of the Global System for Mobile communications (GSM) of 960 MHz. Cell cultures, growing in microtiter plates, were exposed in a specially constructed chamber, a Transverse Electromagnetic (TEM) cell. The Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) values for each cell well were calculated for this exposure system. Experiments were performed on cell cultures of transformed human epithelial amnion cells (AMA), which were exposed to 960 MHz microwave fields at three different power levels and three different exposure times, respectively. It was found that cell growth in the exposed cells was decreased in comparison to that in the control and sham exposed cells. Cell proliferation during the period following exposure varied not only with the various SAR levels, but also with the length of exposure time. On the other hand, repeated periods of exposure did not seem to change the effects. There was a general linear correlation between power level and growth change. However, the exposure time required to obtain the maximum effect was not the same for the various power levels. It turned out that at low power level, a maximum effect was first reached after a longer exposure time than at higher power level. A similar phenomenon was registered in the studies on ELF electromagnetic fields. Here, it was found that there was a linear correlation between the length of exposure time to obtain maximum effect and field strength.



Kwee  S,  Raskmark P, Velizarov P. Changes in cellular proteins due to environmental non-ionizing radiation. I. Heat-shock proteins. Electro- and Magnetobiology 20: 141-152, 2001.

This paper describes the effect of weak microwave fields on the amounts of heat-shock proteins in cell cultures at various temperatures. The field was generated by signal simulation of the Global System for Mobile communications (GSM) of 960 Mhz, used in portable phones. Transformed human epithelial amnion (AMA) cells, growing on glass coverslips, were exposed in a transverse electromagnetic (TEM) cell to a microwave field, generating a specific absorption rate (SAR) of 2.1 mW.kg-1 in the cells. Exposure temperatures were 35, 37, and 40 ± 0.1°C, respectively, and the exposure time was 20 min. The heat-shock proteins Hsp-70 and Hsp-27 were detected by immuno-fluorescence. Higher amounts of Hsp-70 were present in the cells exposed at 35 and 37°C than in the sham-exposed cells. These effects can be considered to be athermal, since the field strength was much lower than the safety standard for absence of heat generation by microwave fields. There was no significant response in the case of Hsp-27.



Markova E, Hillert L, Malmgren L, Persson BR, Belyaev IY. Microwaves from GSM Mobile Telephones Affect 53BP1 and gamma-H2AX Foci in Human Lymphocytes from Hypersensitive and Healthy Persons. Environ Health Perspect. 113(9):1172-1177, 2005.

The data on biologic effects of nonthermal microwaves (MWs) from mobile telephones are diverse, and these effects are presently ignored by safety standards of the International Commission for Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). In the present study, we investigated effects of MWs of Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) at different carrier frequencies on human lymphocytes from healthy persons and from persons reporting hypersensitivity to electromagnetic fields (EMFs). We measured the changes in chromatin conformation, which are indicative of stress response and genotoxic effects, by the method of anomalous viscosity time dependence, and we analyzed tumor suppressor p53-binding protein 1 (53BP1) and phosphorylated histone H2AX (gamma-H2AX), which have been shown to colocalize in distinct foci with DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), using immunofluorescence confocal laser microscopy. We found that MWs from GSM mobile telephones affect chromatin conformation and 53BP1/gamma-H2AX foci similar to heat shock. For the first time, we report here that effects of MWs from mobile telephones on human lymphocytes are dependent on carrier frequency. On average, the same response was observed in lymphocytes from hypersensitive and healthy subjects.



Mancinelli F, Caraglia M, Abbruzzese A, d'Ambrosio G, Massa R, Bismuto E.  Non-thermal effects of electromagnetic fields at mobile phone frequency on the refolding of an intracellular protein: myoglobin. J Cell Biochem. 93(1):188-196, 2004.

Non-thermal effects induced by exposure to microwave electromagnetic field (MW-EMF) at 1.95 MHz, a frequency used in mobile communication, have been observed on the refolding kinetics of the heme binding site in an intracellular protein: tuna myoglobin, starting from acidic conditions. We have selected myoglobin because it can be considered a good model to study protein interactions with MW-EMF for its well-known high-resolution crystallographic structure. Myoglobin solutions at pH 3.0 were subjected to 3 h exposure to microwave field (with a specific absorption rate of 51 +/- 1 mW/g); the heme site refolding has been followed by measuring the molecular absorption in the Soret spectral region and the data were fitted to a bi-exponential model. The kinetics of exposed samples appear to be slowered by MW-EMF action. Moreover, the tryptophanyl lifetime distribution of the exposed protein, as deduced by the analysis of the fluorescence emission decay from its single tryptophan, appears sharper if compared to non-exposed protein samples. This observation suggests that the presence of MW-EMF could affect the propensity of protein molecules to populate specific conformational substates among which myoglobin molecules fluctuate at acidic pH. Changes in the structural fluctuation caused by MW perturbation can affect differently the aggregation process that occurs competitively during the protein folding, so representing a potential risk for protein "misfolding." These data suggest that MW-EMF could have also biochemical and, consequently, biological effects on eukaryotic cells that are still under investigation.



Nylund R, Leszczynski D. Proteomics analysis of human endothelial cell line EA.hy926 after exposure to GSM 900 radiation. Proteomics 4:1359-1365, 2004.


The human endothelial cell line EA.hy926 was exposed to mobile phone radiation and the effect on protein expression was examined using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). Up to 38 various proteins have statistically significantly altered their expression levels following the irradiation. Four proteins were identified with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). Two of the affected proteins were determined to be isoforms of cytoskeletal vimentin. This finding supports our earlier presented working hypothesis which indicated that the mobile phone radiation might affect the cytoskeleton and might have an effect on the physiological functions that are regulated by the cytoskeleton.



Nylund R, Leszczynski D.Mobile phone radiation causes changes in gene and protein expression in human endothelial cell lines and the response seems to be genome- and proteome-dependent. Proteomics. 2006 Jul 28; [Epub ahead of print]

We have examined in vitro cell response to mobile phone radiation (900 MHz GSM signal) using two variants of human endothelial cell line: EA.hy926 and EA.hy926v1. Gene expression changes were examined in three experiments using cDNA Expression Arrays and protein expression changes were examined in ten experiments using 2-DE and PDQuest software. Obtained results show that gene and protein expression were altered, in both examined cell lines, in response to one hour mobile phone radiation exposure at an average specific absorption rate of 2.8 W/kg. However, the same genes and proteins were differently affected by the exposure in each of the cell lines. This suggests that the cell response to mobile phone radiation might be genome- and proteome-dependent. Therefore, it is likely that different types of cells and from different species might respond differently to mobile phone radiation or might have different sensitivity to this weak stimulus. Our findings might also explain, at least in part, the origin of discrepancies in replication studies between different laboratories.



Philippova TM, Novoselov VI, Alekseev SI, Influence of microwaves on different types of receptors and the role of peroxidation of lipids on receptor-protein shedding. Bioelectromagnetics 15(3):183-192, 1994.

The effects of a continuous wave or pulse-modulated, 900 MHz microwave field were studied by in vitro assays of rat chemoreceptors. The pulsed field was modulated as rectangular waves at rates of 1, 6, 16, 32, 75, or 100 pps. The pulse-period to pulse-duration ratio was 5 in all cases, and specific absorption rates (SARs) ranged from 0.5 to 18 W/kg. Binding of ligands to cell membranes was differentially affected by exposure to microwaves. For example, binding of H3-glutamic acid to hippocampal cells was not altered by a 15 min exposure to a continuous wave field at 1 W/kg, but binding of H3-dihydroalprenolol to liver-cell membranes of neonates underwent a fivefold decrease under the same field conditions. This effect was not dependent on modulation or on a change in the constant of stimulus-receptor binding but depended on a shedding of the membrane's receptor elements into solution. The magnitude of inhibition correlated with the oxygen concentration in the exposed suspension. Antioxidants (dithiothreitol and ionol) inhibited the shedding of receptor elements. The microwave exposure did not cause an accumulation of products from the peroxidation of lipids (POL). Ascorbate-dependent or non-enzymatic POL was not responsible for the inhibition, and POL was not found in other model systems. However, enzymatic POL mechanisms in localized areas of receptor binding remain a possibility.



Stopczyk D, Gnitecki W, Buczynski A, Markuszewski L, Buczynski J.  [Effect of electromagnetic field produced by mobile phones on the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD-1) and the level of malonyldialdehyde (MDA)--in vitro study] Med Pr. 53(4):311-314, 2002.

[Article in Polish]

The aim of the study was to assess in vitro the effect of electromagnetic field produced by mobile phones on the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD-1) and the level of malonyldialdehyde (MDA) in human blood platelets. The suspension of blood platelets was exposed to the electromagnetic field with the frequency of 900 MHz for 1, 3, 5, and 7 min. Our studies demonstrated that microwaves produced by mobile phones significantly depleted SOD-1 activity after 1, 5, and 7 min of exposure and increased after 3 min in comparison with the control test. There was a significant increase in the concentration of MDA after 1, 5, and 7 min and decrease after 3 min of exposure as compared with the control test. On the grounds of our results we conclude that oxidative stress after exposure to microwaves may be the reason for many adverse changes in cells and may cause a number of systemic disturbances in the human body.



Tafforeau M, Verdus M-C, Norris V, White G, Demarty M, Thellier M, Ripoll C. SIMS study of the calcium-deprivation step related to epidermal meristem production induced in flax by cold shock or radiation from a GSM telephone. J Trace Microprobe Tech 20(4):611-623, 2002.


Exposing seedlings of the flax, Linum usitatissimum L., to a variety of weak environmental stresses plus a 2-day calcium deprivation triggers the common response of production of epidermal meristems in the hypocotyls. Here, we show that the same response was induced by a 1 min cold shock. Epidemal meristem production was also induced by a single 2-h exposure to radiation emitted at 0.9 GHz at non-thermal levels by a GSM telephone.  This flax-based system is therefore well suited to studying the effects of low intensity stimuli, including those of electromagnetic radiation.  To begin to determine the underlying mechanisms, in which calcium is implicated, it is desirable to analyse the changes in ions in the tissues affected. We therefore performed a Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) study of the distribution of the main inorganic cations in the hypocotl of control and calcium-deprived seedlings. This showed decreases in calcium, sodium and potassium and an increase in magnesium that did not alter substantially the overall ratio of divalent to monovalent cations.



Baohong Wang, Jiliang H, Lifen J, Deqiang L, Wei Z, Jianlin L, Hongping D. Studying the synergistic damage effects induced by 1.8GHz radiofrequency field radiation (RFR) with four chemical mutagens on human lymphocyte DNA using comet assay in vitro. Mutat Res. 2005 May 31; [Epub ahead of print]

The aim of this investigation was to study the synergistic DNA damage effects in human lymphocytes induced by 1.8GHz radiofrequency field radiation (RFR, SAR of 3W/kg) with four chemical mutagens, i.e. mitomycin C (MMC, DNA crosslinker), bleomycin (BLM, radiomimetic agent), methyl methanesulfonate (MMS, alkylating agent), and 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO, UV-mimetic agent). The DNA damage of lymphocytes exposed to RFR and/or with chemical mutagens was detected at two incubation time (0 or 21h) after treatment with comet assay in vitro. Three combinative exposure ways were used. Cells were exposed to RFR and chemical mutagens for 2 and 3h, respectively. Tail length (TL) and tail moment (TM) were utilized as DNA damage indexes. The results showed no difference of DNA damage indexes between RFR group and control group at 0 and 21h incubation after exposure (P>0.05). There were significant difference of DNA damage indexes between MMC group and RFR+MMC co-exposure group at 0 and 21h incubation after treatment (P<0.01). Also the significant difference of DNA damage indexes between 4NQO group and RFR+4NQO co-exposure group at 0 and 21h incubation after treatment was observed (P<0.05 or P<0.01). The DNA damage in RFR+BLM co-exposure groups and RFR+MMS co-exposure groups was not significantly increased, as compared with corresponding BLM and MMS groups (P>0.05). The experimental results indicated 1.8GHz RFR (SAR, 3W/kg) for 2h did not induce the human lymphocyte DNA damage effects in vitro, but could enhance the human lymphocyte DNA damage effects induced by MMC and 4NQO. The synergistic DNA damage effects of 1.8GHz RFR with BLM or MMS were not obvious.



Wolke S, Neibig U, Elsner R, Gollnick F, Meyer R, Calcium homeostasis of isolated heart muscle cells exposed to pulsed high-frequency electromagnetic fields. Bioelectromagnetics 17(2):144-153, 1996.


The intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) of isolated ventricular

cardiac myocytes of the guinea pig was measured during the application of

pulsed high-frequency electromagnetic fields. The high-frequency fields were

applied in a transverse electromagnetic cell designed to allow microscopic

observation of the myocytes during the presence of the high-frequency fields.

The [Ca(2+)]i was measured as fura-2 fluorescence by means of digital image

analysis. Both the carrier frequency and the square-wave pulse-modulation

pattern were varied during the experiments (carrier frequencies: 900, 1,300,

and 1,800 MHz pulse modulated at 217Hz with 14 percent duty cycle; pulsation

pattern at 900 MHz: continuous wave, 16 Hz, and 50 Hz modulation with 50

percent duty cycle and 30 kHz modulation with 80 percent duty cycle). The mean

specific absorption rate (SAR) values in the solution were within one order of

magnitude of 1 mW/kg. They varied depending on the applied carrier frequency

and pulse pattern. The experiments were designed in three phases: 500 s of sham exposure, followed by 500 s of field exposure, then chemical stimulation

without field. The chemical stimulation (K+ -depolarization) indicated the

viability of the cells. The K+ depolarization yielded a significant increase in

[Ca(2+)]i. Significant differences between sham exposure and high-frequency

field exposure were not found except when a very small but statistically

significant difference was detected in the case of 900 MHz/50 Hz. However, this

small difference was not regarded as a relevant effect of the exposure.



Zmyslony M, Politanski P, Rajkowska E, Szymczak W, Jajte J. Acute exposure to 930 MHz CW electromagnetic radiation in vitro affects reactive oxygen species level in rat lymphocytes treated by iron ions. Bioelectromagnetics. 25(5):324-328, 2004.

The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the 930 MHz continuous wave (CW) electromagnetic field, which is the carrier of signals emitted by cellular phones, affects the reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in living cells. Rat lymphocytes were used in the experiments. A portion of the lymphocytes was treated with iron ions to induce oxidative processes. Exposures to electromagnetic radiation (power density 5 W/m2, theoretical calculated SAR = 1.5 W/kg) were performed within a GTEM cell. Intracellular ROS were measured by the fluorescent probe dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCF-DA). The results show that acute (5 and 15 min) exposure does not affect the number of produced ROS. If, however, FeCl2 with final concentration 10 microg/ml was added to the lymphocyte suspensions to stimulate ROS production, after both durations of exposure, the magnitude of fluorescence (ROS level during the experiment) was significantly greater in the exposed lymphocytes. The character of the changes in the number of free radicals observed in our experiments was qualitatively compatible with the theoretical prediction from the model of electromagnetic radiation effect on radical pairs.



Zotti-Martelli L, Peccatori M, Maggini V, Ballardin M, Barale R.
Individual responsiveness to induction of micronuclei in human lymphocytes after exposure in vitro to 1800-MHz microwave radiation. Mutat Res. 582(1-2):42-52, 2005.

The widespread application of microwaves is of great concern in view of possible consequences for human health. Many in vitro studies have been carried out to detect possible effects on DNA and chromatin structure following exposure to microwave radiation. The aim of this study is to assess the capability of microwaves, at different power densities and exposure times, to induce genotoxic effects as evaluated by the in vitro micronucleus (MN) assay on peripheral blood lymphocytes from nine different healthy donors, and to investigate also the possible inter-individual response variability. Whole blood samples were exposed for 60, 120 and 180min to continuous microwave radiation with a frequency of 1800MHz and power densities of 5, 10 and 20mW/cm(2). Reproducibility was tested by repeating the experiment 3 months later. Multivariate analysis showed that lymphocyte proliferation indices were significantly different among donors (p<0.004) and between experiments (p<0.01), whereas the applied power density and the exposure time did not have any effect on them. Both spontaneous and induced MN frequencies varied in a highly significant way among donors (p<0.009) and between experiments (p<0.002), and a statistically significant increase of MN, although rather low, was observed dependent on exposure time (p=0.0004) and applied power density (p=0.0166). A considerable decrease in spontaneous and induced MN frequencies was measured in the second experiment. The results show that microwaves are able to induce MN in short-time exposures to medium power density fields. Our data analysis highlights a wide inter-individual variability in the response, which was confirmed to be a characteristic reproducible trait by means of the second experiment.








Cellular damage

Balci M, Devrim E, Durak I. Effects of mobile phones on oxidant/antioxidant balance in cornea and lens of rats. Curr Eye Res. 32(1):21-25, 2007.

Purpose: To investigate the effects of mobile-phone-emitted radiation on the oxidant/antioxidant balance in corneal and lens tissues and to observe any protective effects of vitamin C in this setting. Methods: Forty female albino Wistar rats were assigned to one of four groups containing 10 rats each. One group received a standardized daily dose of mobile phone radiation for 4 weeks. The second group received this same treatment along with a daily oral dose of vitamin C (250 mg/kg). The third group received this dose of vitamin C alone, while the fourth group received standard laboratory care and served as a control. In corneal and lens tissues, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and catalase (CAT) were measured with spectrophotometric methods. Results: In corneal tissue, MDA level and CAT activity significantly increased in the mobile phone group compared with the mobile phone plus vitamin C group and the control group (p < 0.05), whereas SOD activity was significantly decreased (p < 0.05). In the lens tissues, only the MDA level significantly increased in the mobile phone group relative to mobile phone plus vitamin C group and the control groups (p < 0.05). In lens tissue, significant differences were not found between the groups in terms of SOD, GSH-Px, or CAT (p > 0.05). Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that mobile telephone radiation leads to oxidative stress in corneal and lens tissues and that antioxidants such as vitamin C can help to prevent these effects


Belyaev IY, Koch CB, Terenius O, Roxstrom-Lindquist K, Malmgren LO, H Sommer W, Salford LG, Persson BR. Exposure of rat brain to 915 MHz GSM microwaves induces changes in gene expression but not double stranded DNA breaks or effects on chromatin conformation. Bioelectromagnetics. 2006 Mar 1; [Epub ahead of print]

We investigated whether exposure of rat brain to microwaves (MWs) of global system for mobile communication (GSM) induces DNA breaks, changes in chromatin conformation and in gene expression. An exposure installation was used based on a test mobile phone employing a GSM signal at 915 MHz, all standard modulations included, output power level in pulses 2 W, specific absorption rate (SAR) 0.4 mW/g. Rats were exposed or sham exposed to MWs during 2 h. After exposure, cell suspensions were prepared from brain samples, as well as from spleen and thymus. For analysis of gene expression patterns, total RNA was extracted from cerebellum. Changes in chromatin conformation, which are indicative of stress response and genotoxic effects, were measured by the method of anomalous viscosity time dependencies (AVTD). DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Effects of MW exposure were observed on neither conformation of chromatin nor DNA DSBs. Gene expression profiles were obtained by Affymetrix U34 GeneChips representing 8800 rat genes and analyzed with the Affymetrix Microarray Suite (MAS) 5.0 software. In cerebellum from all exposed animals, 11 genes were upregulated in a range of 1.34-2.74 fold and one gene was downregulated 0.48-fold (P < .0025). The induced genes encode proteins with diverse functions including neurotransmitter regulation, blood-brain barrier (BBB), and melatonin production. The data shows that GSM MWs at 915 MHz did not induce PFGE-detectable DNA double stranded breaks or changes in chromatin conformation, but affected expression of genes in rat brain cells


Capri M, Scarcella E, Fumelli C, Bianchi E, Salvioli S, Mesirca P, Agostini C, Antolini A, Schiavoni A, Castellani G, Bersani F, Franceschi C. In vitro exposure of human lymphocytes to 900 MHz CW and GSM modulated radiofrequency: studies of proliferation, apoptosis and mitochondrial membrane potential. Radiat Res. 162(2):211-218, 2004a .

The aim of this study was to investigate the nonthermal effects of radiofrequency (RF) fields on human immune cells exposed to a Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) signal generated by a commercial cellular phone and by a sinusoidal non-modulated signal. To assess whether mobile phone RF-field exposure affects human immune cell functions, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy donors were exposed in vitro to a 900 MHz GSM or continuous-wave (CW) RF field 1 h/day for 3 days in a transverse electromagnetic mode (TEM) cell system (70-76 mW/kg average specific absorption rate, SAR). The cells were cultured for 48 or 72 h, and the following end points were studied: (1) mitogen-induced proliferation; (2) cell cycle progression; (3) spontaneous and 2-deoxy-D-ribose (dRib)-induced apoptosis; (4) mitochondrial membrane potential modifications during spontaneous and dRib-induced-apoptosis. Data obtained from cells exposed to a GSM-modulated RF field showed a slight decrease in cell proliferation when PBMCs were stimulated with the lowest mitogen concentration and a slight increase in the number of cells with altered distribution of phosphatidylserine across the membrane. On the other hand, cell cycle phases, mitochondrial membrane potential and susceptibility to apoptosis were found to be unaffected by the RF field. When cells were exposed to a CW RF field, no significant modifications were observed in comparison with sham-exposed cells for all the end points investigated.


Friedman J, Kraus S, Hauptman Y, Schiff Y, Seger R. Mechanism of a short-term ERK activation by electromagnetic fields at mobile phone frequency. Biochem J. 2007 Apr 25; [Epub ahead of print]

The exposure to non-thermal microwave electromagnetic field generated by mobile phones affects the expression of many proteins. This effect on transcription and protein stability can be mediated by the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades, which serve as central signaling pathways, and govern essentially all stimulated cellular processes. Indeed, a long-term exposure of cells to mobile phone irradiation results in the activation of p38MAPKs as well as the ERK/MAPKs. Here we studied the immediate effect of irradiation on the MAPK cascades, and found that ERKs, but not stress related MAPKs are rapidly activated in response to various frequencies and intensities. Using signaling inhibitors we delineated the mechanism that is involved in this activation. We found that the first step is mediated in the plasma membrane by NADH oxidase, which rapidly generates reactive oxygen species (ROS). These ROS then directly stimulate matrix metalloproteinases and allow them to cleave and release heparin binding-EGF. This secreted factor, activates EGF receptor, which in turn further activates the ERK cascade. Thus, this study demonstrates for the first time a detailed molecular mechanism by which electromagnetic irradiation by mobile phones induces the activation of the ERK cascade and thereby induces transcription and other cellular processes.


Mausset A, de Seze R, Montpeyroux F, Privat A. Effects of radiofrequency exposure on the GABAergic system in the rat cerebellum: clues from semi-quantitative immunohistochemistry. Brain Res 912(1):33-46, 2001.

The widespread use of cellular phones raises the problem of interaction of electromagnetic fields with the central nervous system (CNS). In order to measure these effects on neurotransmitter content in the CNS, we developed a protocol of neurotransmitter detection based on immunohistochemistry and image analysis. Gamma-vinyl-GABA (GVG), an inhibitor of the GABA-transaminase was injected in rats to increase GABA concentration in the CNS. The cellular GABA contents were then revealed by immunohistochemistry and semi-quantified by image analysis thanks to three parameters: optical density (O.D.), staining area, and number of positive cells. The increase in cerebellar GABA content induced by GVG 1200 mg/kg was reflected in these three parameters in the molecular and the granular layers. Therefore, control of immunohistochemistry parameters, together with appropriate image analysis, allowed both the location and the detection of variations in cellular neurotransmitter content. This protocol was used to investigate the effects of exposure to 900 MHz radiofrequencies on cerebellar GABA content. Both pulsed emission with a specific absorption rate (SAR) of 4 W/kg and continuous emission with high SAR (32 W/kg) were tested. We observed a selective diminution of the stained processes area in the Purkinje cell layer after exposure to pulsed radiofrequency and, in addition, a decrease in O.D. in the three cell layers after exposure to continuous waves. Whether this effect is, at least partly, due to a local heating of the tissues is not known. Overall, it appears that high energetic radiofrequency exposure induces a diminution in cellular GABA content in the cerebellum.



Sarimov R, Malmgren L.O.G.Markova, E.,   Persson, B.R.R..   Belyaev, I.Y.   Nonthermal GSM microwaves affect chromatin conformation in human lymphocytes similar to heat shock. IEEE Trans Plasma Sci 32:1600-1608, 2004.
Here we investigated whether microwaves (MWs) of Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) induce changes in chromatin conformation in human lymphocytes. Effects of MWs were studied at different frequencies in the range of 895-915 MHz in experiments with lymphocytes from seven healthy persons. Exposure was performed in transverse electromagnetic transmission line cell (TEM-cell) using a GSM test-mobile phone. All standard modulations included 2 W output power in the pulses, specific absorbed rate (SAR) being 5.4 mW/kg. Changes in chromatin conformation, which are indicative of stress response and genotoxic effects, were measured by the method of anomalous viscosity time dependencies (AVTD). Heat shock and treatment with the genotoxic agent camptothecin, were used as positive controls. 30-min exposure to MWs at 900 and 905 MHz resulted in statistically significant condensation of chromatin in lymphocytes from 1 of 3 tested donors. This condensation was similar to effects of heat shock within the temperature window of 40/spl deg/C-44/spl deg/C. Analysis of pooled data from all donors showed statistically significant effect of 30-min exposure to MWs. Stronger effects of MWs was found following 1-h exposure. In replicated experiments, cells from four out of five donors responded to 905 MHz. Responses to 915 MHz were observed in cells from 1 out of 5 donors, p<0.002. Dependent on donor, condensation, 3 donors, or decondensation, 1 donor, of chromatin was found in response to 1-h exposure. Analysis of pooled data from all donors showed statistically significant effect of 1-h exposure to MWs. In cells from one donor, this effect was frequency-dependent (p<0.01). Effects of MWs correlated statistically significantly with effects of heat shock and initial state of chromatin before exposure. MWs at 895 and 915 MHz affected chromatin conformation in transformed lymphocytes. The conclusion-GSM microwaves under specific conditions of exposure affected human lymphocytes similar to stress response. The data suggested that the MW effects differ at various GSM frequencies and vary between donors.


Velizarov, S, Raskmark, P, Kwee, S, The effects of radiofrequency fields on cell proliferation are non-thermal. Bioelectrochem Bioenerg 48(1):177-180, 1999.


The number of reports on the effects induced by radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields and microwave (MW) radiation in various cellular systems is still increasing. Until now no satisfactory mechanism has been proposed to explain the biological effects of these fields. One of the current theories is that heat generation by RF/MW is the cause, in spite of the fact that a great number of studies under isothermal conditions have reported significant cellular changes after exposure to RF/MW. Therefore, this study was undertaken to investigate which effect MW radiation from these fields in combination with a significant change of temperature could have on cell proliferation. The experiments were performed on the same cell line, and with the same exposure system as in a previous work [S. Kwee, P. Raskmark, Changes in cell proliferation due to environmental non-ionizing radiation: 2. Microwave radiation, Bioelectrochem. Bioenerg., 44 (1998), pp. 251-255]. The field was generated by signal simulation of the Global System for Mobile communications (GSM) of 960 MHz. Cell cultures, growing in microtiter plates, were exposed in a specially constructed chamber, a Transverse Electromagnetic (TEM) cell. The Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) value for each cell well was calculated for this exposure system. However, in this study the cells were exposed to the field at a higher or lower temperature than the temperature in the field-free incubator i.e., the temperature in the TEM cell was either 39 or 35 +/- 0.1 degrees C. The corresponding sham experiments were performed under exactly the same experimental conditions. The results showed that there was a significant change in cell proliferation in the exposed cells in comparison to the non-exposed (control) cells at both temperatures. On the other hand, no significant change in proliferation rate was found in the sham-exposed cells at both temperatures. This shows that biological effects due to RF/MW cannot be attributed only to a change of temperature. Since the RF/MW induced changes were of the same order of magnitude at both temperatures and also comparable to our previous results under isothermal conditions at 37 degrees C, cellular stress caused by electromagnetic fields could initiate the changes in cell cycle reaction rates. It is widely accepted that certain classes of heat-shock proteins are involved in these stress reactions.


7. Cellular Damage and Cell Death

DNA damage, Apoptosis


Gandhi G, Anita. Genetic damage in mobile phone users: some preliminary findings. Ind J Hum Genet 11(2): 99-104, 2005a.


BACKGROUND: The impact of microwave (MW)/radio frequency radiation (RFR) on important biological parameters is probably more than a simply thermal one. Exposure to radio frequency (RF) signals generated by the use of cellular telephones have increased dramatically and reported to affect physiological, neurological, cognitive and behavioural changes and to induce, initiate and promote carcinogenesis. Genotoxicity of RFR has also been reported in various test systems after in vitro and/or in vivo exposure but none in mobile phone users.
AIMS: In the present study, DNA and chromosomal damage investigations were carried out on the peripheral blood lymphocytes of individuals using mobile phones, being exposed to MW frequency ranging from 800 to 2000 MHz.
METHODS: DNA damage was assessed using the single cell gel electrophoresis assay and aneugenic and clastogenic damage by the in vivo capillary blood micronucleus test (MNT) in a total of 24 mobile phone users.
RESULTS: Mean comet tail length (26.76 ± 0.054 mm; 39.75% of cells damaged) in mobile phone users was highly significant from that in the control group. The in vivo capillary blood MNT also revealed highly significant (0.25) frequency of micronucleated (MNd) cells.
CONCLUSIONS: These results highlight a correlation between mobile phone use (exposure to RFR) and genetic damage and require interim public health actions in the wake of widespread use of mobile telephony.


Belyaev IY, Hillert L, Protopopova M, Tamm C, Malmgren LO, Persson BR, Selivanova G, Harms-Ringdahl M. 915 MHz microwaves and 50 Hz magnetic field affect chromatin conformation and 53BP1 foci in human lymphocytes from hypersensitive and healthy persons. Bioelectromagnetics. 26(3):173-184, 2005.

We used exposure to microwaves from a global system for mobile communication (GSM) mobile phone (915 MHz, specific absorption rate (SAR) 37 mW/kg) and power frequency magnetic field (50 Hz, 15 muT peak value) to investigate the response of lymphocytes from healthy subjects and from persons reporting hypersensitivity to electromagnetic field (EMF). The hypersensitive and healthy donors were matched by gender and age and the data were analyzed blind to treatment condition. The changes in chromatin conformation were measured with the method of anomalous viscosity time dependencies (AVTD). 53BP1 protein, which has been shown to colocalize in foci with DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), was analyzed by immunostaining in situ. Exposure at room temperature to either 915 MHz or 50 Hz resulted in significant condensation of chromatin, shown as AVTD changes, which was similar to the effect of heat shock at 41 degrees C. No significant differences in responses between normal and hypersensitive subjects were detected. Neither 915 MHz nor 50 Hz exposure induced 53BP1 foci. On the contrary, a distinct decrease in background level of 53BP1 signaling was observed upon these exposures as well as after heat shock treatments. This decrease correlated with the AVTD data and may indicate decrease in accessibility of 53BP1 to antibodies because of stress-induced chromatin condensation. Apoptosis was determined by morphological changes and by apoptotic fragmentation of DNA as analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). No apoptosis was induced by exposure to 50 Hz and 915 MHz microwaves. In conclusion, 50 Hz magnetic field and 915 MHz microwaves under specified conditions of exposure induced comparable responses in lymphocytes from healthy and hypersensitive donors that were similar but not identical to stress response induced by heat shock.


Caraglia M, Marra M, Mancinelli F, D'Ambrosio G, Massa R, Giordano A, Budillon A, Abbruzzese A, Bismuto E. Electromagnetic fields at mobile phone frequency induce apoptosis and inactivation of the multi-chaperone complex in human epidermoid cancer cells. J Cell Physiol. 204(2):539-548, 2005.

The exposure to non-thermal microwave electromagnetic field (MW-EMF) at 1.95 MHz, a frequency used in mobile communication, affects the refolding kinetics of eukaryotic proteins (Mancinelli et al., 2004). On these basis we have evaluated the in vivo effect of MW-EMF in human epidermoid cancer KB cells. We have found that MW-EMF induces time-dependent apoptosis (45% after 3 h) that is paralleled by an about 2.5-fold decrease of the expression of ras and Raf-1 and of the activity of ras and Erk-1/2. Although also the expression of Akt was reduced its activity was unchanged likely as a consequence of the increased expression of its upstream activator PI3K. In the same experimental conditions an about 2.5-fold increase of the ubiquitination of ras and Raf-1 was also found and the addition for 12 h of proteasome inhibitor lactacystin at 10 microM caused an accumulation of the ubiquitinated isoforms of ras and Raf-1 and counteracted the effects of MW-EMF on ras and Raf-1 expression suggesting an increased proteasome-dependent degradation induced by MW-EMF. The exposure of KB cells to MW-EMF induced a differential activation of stress-dependent pathway with an increase of JNK-1 activity and HSP70 and 27 expression and with a reduction of p38 kinase activity and HSP90 expression. The overexpression of HSP90 induced by transfection of KB cells with a plasmid encoding for the factor completely antagonized the apoptosis and the inactivation of the ras --> Erk-dependent survival signal induced by MW-EMF. Conversely, the inhibition of Erk activity induced by 12 h exposure to 10 mM Mek-1 inhibitor U0126 antagonized the effects induced by HSP90 transfection on apoptosis caused by MW-EMF. In conclusion, these results demonstrate for the first time that MW-EMF induces apoptosis through the inactivation of the ras --> Erk survival signaling due to enhanced degradation of ras and Raf-1 determined by decreased expression of HSP90 and the consequent increase of proteasome dependent degradation.


d'Ambrosio G, Massa  R, Scarfi MR, Zeni O, Cytogenetic damage in human lymphocytes following GMSK phase modulated microwave exposure. Bioelectromagnetics 23:7-13, 2002.


The present study investigated, using in vitro experiments on human lymphocytes, whether exposure to a microwave frequency used for mobile communication, either unmodulated or in presence of phase only modulation, can cause modification of cell proliferation kinetics and/or genotoxic effects, by evaluating the cytokinesis block proliferation index and the micronucleus frequency. In the GSM 1800 mobile communication systems the field is both phase (Gaussian minimum shift keying, GMSK) and amplitude (time domain multiple access, TDMA) modulated. The present study investigated only the effects of phase modulation, and no amplitude modulation was applied. Human peripheral blood cultures were exposed to 1.748 GHz, either continuous wave (CW) or phase only modulated wave (GMSK), for 15 min. The maximum specific absorption rate (5 W/kg) was higher than that occurring in the head of mobile phone users; however, no changes were found in cell proliferation kinetics after exposure to either CW or GMSK fields. As far as genotoxicity is concerned, the micronucleus frequency result was not affected by CW exposure; however, a statistically significant micronucleus effect was found following exposure to phase modulated field. These results would suggest a genotoxic power of the phase modulation per se.


Diem E, Schwarz C, Adlkofer F, Jahn O, Rudiger H. Non-thermal DNA breakage by mobile-phone radiation (1800MHz) in human fibroblasts and in transformed GFSH-R17 rat granulosa cells in vitro. Mutat Res. 583:178-183, 2005.

 Cultured human diploid fibroblasts and cultured rat granulosa cells were exposed to intermittent and continuous radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) used in mobile phones, with different specific absorption rates (SAR) and different mobile-phone modulations. DNA strand breaks were determined by means of the alkaline and neutral comet assay. RF-EMF exposure (1800MHz; SAR 1.2 or 2W/kg; different modulations; during 4, 16 and 24h; intermittent 5min on/10min off or continuous wave) induced DNA single- and double-strand breaks. Effects occurred after 16h exposure in both cell types and after different mobile-phone modulations. The intermittent exposure showed a stronger effect in the comet assay than continuous exposure. Therefore we conclude that the induced DNA damage cannot be based on thermal effects.


Ferreira AR, Knakievicz T, de Bittencourt Pasquali MA, Gelain DP, Dal-Pizzol F, Fernandez CE, de Almeida de Salles AA, Ferreira HB, Moreira JC. Ultra high frequency-electromagnetic field irradiation during pregnancy leads to an increase in erythrocytes micronuclei incidence in rat offspring. Life Sci. 2006 Aug 23; [Epub ahead of print]

Mobile telephones and their base stations are an important ultra high frequency-electromagnetic field (UHF-EMF) source and their utilization is increasing all over the world. Epidemiological studies suggested that low energy UHF-EMF emitted from a cellular telephone may cause biological effects, such as DNA damage and changes on oxidative metabolism. An in vivo mammalian cytogenetic test, the micronucleus (MN) assay, was used to investigate the occurrence of chromosomal damage in erythrocytes from rat offspring exposed to a non-thermal UHF-EMF from a cellular phone during their embryogenesis; the irradiated group showed a significant increase in MN occurrence. In order to investigate if UHF-EMF could also alter oxidative parameters in the peripheral blood and in the liver - an important hematopoietic tissue in rat embryos and newborns - we also measured the activity of antioxidant enzymes, quantified total sulfhydryl content, protein carbonyl groups, thiobarbituric acid-reactive species and total non-enzymatic antioxidant defense. No significant differences were found in any oxidative parameter of offspring blood and liver. The average number of pups in each litter has also not been significantly altered. Our results suggest that, under our experimental conditions, UHF-EMF is able to induce a genotoxic response in hematopoietic tissue during the embryogenesis through an unknown mechanism.


Gadhia PK, Shah T, Mistry A, Pithawala M, Tamakuwala D. A Preliminary Study to Assess Possible Chromosomal Damage Among Users of Digital Mobile Phones. Electromag Biol Med 22:149-159, 2003.

In a preliminary study to examine possible lymphocyte chromosomal damage, we have tested two cytogenetic endpoints, namely, chromosomal aberrations (CA) and sister chromatid exchange frequencies (SCE), in 24 mobile phone users (12 nonsmoker-nonalcoholic subjects and 12 smoker-alcoholics), who used digital mobile phones for at least 2 years, employing Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying modulations with uplink frequencies at 935-960 MHz. and downlinks at 890-915 MHz. For comparison, the control study group included another 24 individuals, matched according to their age, sex, drinking and smoking habits, as well as similar health status, working habits, and professional careers; but did not use mobile phones. Blood samples of 12 mobile users (6 smoker-alcoholic and 6 nonsmoker-nonalcoholic) and 12 controls (identical to mobile users in every respect) were further treated with a known mutagen Mitomycin-C (MMC) to find out comutagenic/synergistic effect. A complete blood picture for each individual was assessed with an automatic particle cell counter.

There was a significant increase (P < 0.05) in dicentric chromosomes among mobile users who were smoker-alcoholic as compared to nonsmoker-nonalcoholic; the same held true for controls of both types. After MMC treatment, there was a significant increase in dicentrics (P < 0.05) and ring chromosomes (P < 0.001) in both smoker-alcoholic and nonsmoker-nonalcoholic mobile users when compared with the controls. Although SCEs showed a significant increase among mobile users, no change in cell cycle progression was noted. The hematological picture showed only minor variations between mobile users and controls.


Gandhi G, Singh P. Cytogenetic damage in mobile phone users: preliminary data. Int J Hum Genet 5(4):259-265, 2005b.


Mobile telephones, sometimes called cellular (cell) phones or handies, are now an integral part of modern life. The mobile phone handsets are low-powered radiofrequency transmitters, emitting maximum powers in the range of 0.2 to 0.6 watts. Scientific concenrns have increased sufficiently over the possible hazard to health from using cell phones. The reported adverse health effects include physiological, behavioural and cognitive changes as well as tumour formation and genetic damage. However findings are controversial and no consensus exists. Genotoxicity has been observed either in lower organisms or in vitro studies. The aim of the present study hence was to detect any cytogenertic damage in mobile phone users by analysing short term peripheral lymphocyte cultures for chromosomal aberrations and the buccal mucosal cells for micronuclei (aneugenicity and clastogenicity). The results revealed increased number of micronucleated buccal cells and cytological abnormalities in cultured lymphocytes indicating the genotoxic response from mobile phone use.


Maes A, Collier M, Slaets D, Verschaeve L, 954 MHz microwaves enhance the mutagenic properties of mitomycin C. Environ Mol Mutagen 28(1):26-30, 1996. 
This paper focuses on the combined effects of microwaves from mobile communication frequencies and a chemical DNA damaging agent mitomycin C (MMC). The investigation was performed in vitro by exposing whole blood samples to a 954 MHz emitting antenna from a GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication) base station, followed by lymphocyte cultivation in the presence of MMC. A highly reproducible synergistic effect was observed as based on the frequencies of sister chromatid exchanges in metaphase figures.


Maes A, Collier M, Van Gorp U, Vandoninck S, Verschaeve L, Cytogenetic effects of 935.2-MHz (GSM) microwaves alone and in combination with mitomycin C. Mutat Res 393(1-2):151-156, 1997.


This paper focuses on the genetic effects of microwaves from mobile communication frequencies (935.2 MHz) alone and in combination with a chemical DNA-damaging agent (mitomycin C). Three cytogenetic endpoints were investigated after in vitro exposure of human whole blood cells. These endpoints were the 'classical' chromosome aberration test, the sister chromatid exchange test and the alkaline comet assay. No direct cytogenetic effect was found. The combined exposure of the cells to the radiofrequency fields followed by their cultivation in the presence of mitomycin C revealed a very weak effect when compared to cells exposed to mitomycin C alone.




Marinelli F, La Sala D, Cicciotti G, Cattini L, Trimarchi C, Putti S, Zamparelli A, Giuliani L, Tomassetti G, Cinti C. Exposure to 900 MHz electromagnetic field induces an unbalance between pro-apoptotic and pro-survival signals in T-lymphoblastoid leukemia CCRF-CEM cells. J Cell Physiol. 198(2):324-332, 2004.

It has been recently established that low-frequency electromagnetic field (EMFs) exposure induces biological changes and could be associated with increased incidence of cancer, while the issue remains unresolved as to whether high-frequency EMFs can have hazardous effect on health. Epidemiological studies on association between childhood cancers, particularly leukemia and brain cancer, and exposure to low- and high-frequency EMF suggested an etiological role of EMFs in inducing adverse health effects. To investigate whether exposure to high-frequency EMFs could affect in vitro cell survival, we cultured acute T-lymphoblastoid leukemia cells (CCRF-CEM) in the presence of unmodulated 900 MHz EMF, generated by a transverse electromagnetic (TEM) cell, at various exposure times. We evaluated the effects of high-frequency EMF on cell growth rate and apoptosis induction, by cell viability (MTT) test, FACS analysis and DNA ladder, and we investigated pro-apoptotic and pro-survival signaling pathways possibly involved as a function of exposure time by Western blot analysis. At short exposure times (2-12 h), unmodulated 900 MHz EMF induced DNA breaks and early activation of both p53-dependent and -independent apoptotic pathways while longer continuous exposure (24-48 h) determined silencing of pro-apoptotic signals and activation of genes involved in both intracellular (Bcl-2) and extracellular (Ras and Akt1) pro-survival signaling. Overall our results indicate that exposure to 900 MHz continuous wave, after inducing an early self-defense response triggered by DNA damage, could confer to the survivor CCRF-CEM cells a further advantage to survive and proliferate.




Mashevich M, Folkman D, Kesar A, Barbul A, Korenstein R, Jerby E, Avivi L,  Exposure of human peripheral blood lymphocytes to electromagnetic fields associated with cellular phones leads to chromosomal instability. Bioelectromagnetics 24:82-90, 2003.


Whether exposure to radiation emitted from cellular phones poses a health hazard is at the focus of current debate. We have examined whether in vitro exposure of human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) to continuous 830 MHz electromagnetic fields causes losses and gains of chromosomes (aneuploidy), a major somatic mutation leading to genomic instability and thereby to cancer. PBL were irradiated at different average absorption rates (SAR) in the range of 1.6-8.8 W/kg for 72 hr in an exposure system based on a parallel plate resonator at temperatures ranging from 34.5-37.5 °C. The averaged SAR and its distribution in the exposed tissue culture flask were determined by combining measurements and numerical analysis based on a finite element simulation code. A linear increase in chromosome 17 aneuploidy was observed as a function of the SAR value, demonstrating that this radiation has a genotoxic effect. The SAR dependent aneuploidy was accompanied by an abnormal mode of replication of the chromosome 17 region engaged in segregation (repetitive DNA arrays associated with the centromere), suggesting that epigenetic alterations are involved in the SAR dependent genetic toxicity. Control experiments (i.e., without any RF radiation) carried out in the temperature range of 34.5-38.5 °C showed that elevated temperature is not associated with either the genetic or epigenetic alterations observed following RF radiation - the increased levels of aneuploidy and the modification in replication of the centromeric DNA arrays. These findings indicate that the genotoxic effect of the electromagnetic radiation is elicited via a non-thermal pathway. Moreover, the fact that aneuploidy is a phenomenon known to increase the risk for cancer, should be taken into consideration in future evaluation of exposure guidelines.




Nikolova T, Czyz J, Rolletschek A, Blyszczuk P, Fuchs J, Jovtchev G, Schuderer J, Kuster N, Wobus AM. Electromagnetic fields affect transcript levels of apoptosis-related genes in embryonic stem cell-derived neural progenitor cells. ASEB J. 19(12):1686-1688, 2005.

Mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells were used as an experimental model to study the effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF). ES-derived nestin-positive neural progenitor cells were exposed to extremely low frequency EMF simulating power line magnetic fields at 50 Hz (ELF-EMF) and to radiofrequency EMF simulating the Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) signals at 1.71 GHz (RF-EMF). Following EMF exposure, cells were analyzed for transcript levels of cell cycle regulatory, apoptosis-related, and neural-specific genes and proteins; changes in proliferation; apoptosis; and cytogenetic effects. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that ELF-EMF exposure to ES-derived neural cells significantly affected transcript levels of the apoptosis-related bcl-2, bax, and cell cycle regulatory "growth arrest DNA damage inducible" GADD45 genes, whereas mRNA levels of neural-specific genes were not affected. RF-EMF exposure of neural progenitor cells resulted in down-regulation of neural-specific Nurr1 and in up-regulation of bax and GADD45 mRNA levels. Short-term RF-EMF exposure for 6 h, but not for 48 h, resulted in a low and transient increase of DNA double-strand breaks. No effects of ELF- and RF-EMF on mitochondrial function, nuclear apoptosis, cell proliferation, and chromosomal alterations were observed. We may conclude that EMF exposure of ES-derived neural progenitor cells transiently affects the transcript level of genes related to apoptosis and cell cycle control. However, these responses are not associated with detectable changes of cell physiology, suggesting compensatory mechanisms at the translational and posttranslational level.




Pyrpasopoulou A, Kotoula V, Cheva A, Hytiroglou P, Nikolakaki E, Magras IN, Xenos TD, Tsiboukis TD, Karkavelas G. Bone morphogenetic protein expression in newborn rat kidneys after prenatal exposure to radiofrequency radiation. Bioelectromagnetics 25(3):216-227, 2004.

Effects of nonthermal radiofrequency radiation (RFR) of the global system of mobile communication (GSM) cellular phones have been as yet mostly studied at the molecular level in the context of cellular stress and proliferation, as well as neurotransmitter production and localization. In this study, a simulation model was designed for the exposure of pregnant rats to pulsed GSM-like RFR (9.4 GHz), based on the different resonant frequencies of man and rat. The power density applied was 5 microW/cm2, in order to avoid thermal electromagnetic effects as much as possible. Pregnant rats were exposed to RFR during days 1-3 postcoitum (p.c.) (embryogenesis, pre-implantation) and days 4-7 p.c. (early organogenesis, peri-implantation). Relative expression and localization of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) and their receptors (BMPR), members of a molecular family currently considered as major endocrine and autocrine morphogens and known to be involved in renal development, were investigated in newborn kidneys from RFR exposed and sham irradiated (control) rats. Semi-quantitative duplex RT-PCR for BMP-4, -7, BMPR-IA, -IB, and -II showed increased BMP-4 and BMPR-IA, and decreased BMPR-II relative expression in newborn kidneys. These changes were statistically significant for BMP-4, BMPR-IA, and -II after exposure on days 1-3 p.c. (P <.001 each), and for BMP-4 and BMPR-IA after exposure on days 4-7 p.c. (P <.001 and P =.005, respectively). Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization (ISH) showed aberrant expression and localization of these molecules at the histological level. Our findings suggest that GSM-like RFR interferes with gene expression during early gestation and results in aberrations of BMP expression in the newborn. These molecular changes do not appear to affect renal organogenesis and may reflect a delay in the development of this organ. The differences of relative BMP expression after different time periods of exposure indicate the importance of timing for GSM-like RFR effects on embryonic development.










Remondini D, Nylund R, Reivinen J, Poulletier de Gannes F, Veyret B, Lagroye I, Haro E, Trillo MA, Capri M, Franceschi C, Schlatterer K, Gminski R, Fitzner R, Tauber R, Schuderer J, Kuster N, Leszczynski D, Bersani F, Maercker C. Gene expression changes in human cells after exposure to mobile phone microwaves. Proteomics. 2006 Jul 28; [Epub ahead of print]

Possible biological effects of mobile phone microwaves were investigated in vitro. In this study, which was part of the 5FP EU project REFLEX (Risk Evaluation of Potential Environmental Hazards From Low-Energy Electromagnetic Field Exposure Using Sensitive in vitro Methods), six human cell types, immortalized cell lines and primary cells, were exposed to 900 and 1800 MHz. RNA was isolated from exposed and sham-exposed cells and labeled for transcriptome analysis on whole-genome cDNA arrays. The results were evaluated statistically using bioinformatics techniques and examined for biological relevance with the help of different databases. NB69 neuroblastoma cells, T lymphocytes, and CHME5 microglial cells did not show significant changes in gene expression. In EA.hy926 endothelial cells, U937 lymphoblastoma cells, and HL-60 leukemia cells we found between 12 and 34 up- or down-regulated genes. Analysis of the affected gene families does not point towards a stress response. However, following microwave exposure, some but not all human cells might react with an increase in expression of genes encoding ribosomal proteins and therefore up-regulating the cellular metabolism.


Sun LX, Yao K, He JL, Lu DQ, Wang KJ, Li HW. [Effect of acute exposure to microwave from mobile phone on DNA damage and repair of cultured human lens epithelial cells in vitro.] Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi. 24(8):465-467, 2006.

[Article in Chinese]

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the DNA damage of human lens epithelial cells (LECs) caused by acute exposure to low-power 217 Hz modulated 1.8 GHz microwave radiation and DNA repair. METHODS: Cultured LECs were exposed to 217 Hz modulated 1.8 GHz microwave radiation at SAR (specific absorption rate) of 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 W/kg for 2 hours in an sXc-1800 incubator and irradiate system. The DNA single strand breaks were detected with comet assay in sham-irradiated cells and irradiated cells incubated for varying periods: 0, 30, 60, 120 and 240 min after irradiation. Images of comets were digitized and analyzed using an Imagine-pro plus software, and the indexes used in this study were tail length (TL) and tail moment (TM). RESULTS: The difference in DNA-breaks between the exposure and sham exposure groups induced by 1 and 2 W/kg irradiation was not significant at every detect time (P > 0.05). As for the dosage of 3 and 4 W/kg there was difference in both group immediately after irradiation (P < 0.01). At the time of 30 min after irradiation the difference went on at both group (P < 0.01). However, the difference disappeared after one hour's incubation in 3 W/kg group (P > 0.05), and existed in 4 W/kg group. CONCLUSION: No or repairable DNA damage was observed after 2 hour irradiation of 1.8 GHz microwave on LECs when SAR </= 3 W/kg. The DNA damages caused by 4 W/kg irradiation were irreversible.


Sun LX, Yao K, Jiang H, He JL, Lu DQ, Wang KJ, Li HW  [DNA damage and repair induced by acute exposure of microwave from mobile phone on cultured human lens epithelial cells] Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi. 42(12):1084-1088, 2006..

[Article in Chinese]

.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of acute exposure of low-power 217 Hz modulated 1. 8 GHz microwave radiation on the DNA damage of human lens epithelial cells (hLECs) and repair. METHODS: Cultured hLECs were exposed to 217 Hz modulated 1. 8 GHz microwave radiation at SAR (specific absorption rate) of 1. 0, 2. 0, 3. O0 and 4. 0 W/kg for 2 hours in an sXc-1800 incubator and irradiate system, the DNA single strand breaks were detected with comet assay ( single-cell gel electrophoresis) in sham-irradiated cells and irradiated cells incubated for varying periods: 0, 30 and 60 minutes after irradiation. Images of comets were digitized and analyzed using an Imagine-pro plus software, and the indexes used in this study were tail length (TL) and tail moment (TM). BrdU was added into the medium with additional one hour incubation after radiation, the cell proliferation rate was determined using a BrdU-kit. RESULTS: The difference of DNA-breaks between the exposure and sham exposure groups induced by 1.0 and 2.0 W/kg irradiation were not significant in each time points (P > 0.05) ; there were significant difference in both groups at the exposure dose of 3. 0 and 4. 0 W/kg immediately and at the time of 30 minutes after irradiation (P <0. 01) ; if the radiation exposure time was beyond one hour no differences were be able to detected in 3.0 W/kg group (P > 0. 05) compared with control, but the evidence of significant DNA damage still existed in 4. 0 W/kg group at the same time point. Cell proliferation rate had no significant difference when the application of SAR was < or = 3. 0 W/kg (P >0. 05) , however the cell proliferation was decreased significantly at the dose of 4. 0 W/kg irradiation ( P < 0. 01). CONCLUSIONS: No effective DNA damage was induced using comet assay after 2 hours irradiation of 1. 8 GHz microwave on hLECs at the dose SAR < or = 3.0 W/kg. 4.0 W/kg irradiation caused significantly DNA damage and inhibition of hLECs proliferation.



Sykes PJ, McCallum BD, Bangay MJ, Hooker AM, Morley AA. Effect of Exposure to 900 MHz Radiofrequency Radiation on Intrachromosomal Recombination in pKZ1 Mice. Radiat Res 156(5):495-502, 2001.
Radiofrequency (RF) radiation emitted from mobile phones is not considered to be directly genotoxic, but it may have downstream effects on cellular DNA. We studied the effect of 4 W/kg pulsed 900 MHz RF radiation on somatic intrachromosomal recombination in the spleen in the pKZ1 recombination mutagenesis model. Somatic intrachromosomal recombination inversion events were detected in spleen tissue of pKZ1 mice by histochemical staining for E. coli beta-galactosidase protein in cells in which the lacZ transgene has undergone an inversion event. pKZ1 mice were exposed daily for 30 min to plane-wave fields of 900 MHz with a pulse repetition frequency of 217 Hz and a pulse width of 0.6 ms for 1, 5 or 25 days. Three days after the last exposure, spleen sections were screened for DNA inversion events. There was no significant difference between the control and treated groups in the 1- and 5-day exposure groups, but there was a significant reduction in inversions below the spontaneous frequency in the 25-day exposure group. This observation suggests that exposure to RF radiation can lead to a perturbation in recombination frequency which may have implications for recombination repair of DNA. The biological significance of a reduction below the spontaneous frequency is not known. The number of mice in each treatment group in this study was small (n = 10 or n = 20). Therefore, repetition of this study with a larger number of animals is required to confirm these observations.




Tice RR , Hook GG , Donner M , McRee DI, Guy AW. Genotoxicity of radiofrequency signals. I. Investigation of DNA damage and micronuclei induction in cultured human blood cells. Bioelectromagnetics 23:113-126, 2002.

As part of a comprehensive investigation of the potential genotoxicity of radiofrequency (RF) signals emitted by cellular telephones, in vitro studies evaluated the induction of DNA and chromosomal damage in human blood leukocytes and lymphocytes, respectively. The signals were voice modulated 837 MHz produced by an analog signal generator or by a time division multiple access (TDMA) cellular telephone, 837 MHz generated by a code division multiple access (CDMA) cellular telephone (not voice modulated), and voice modulated 1909.8 MHz generated by a global system of mobile communication (GSM)-type personal communication systems (PCS) cellular telephone. DNA damage (strand breaks/alkali labile sites) was assessed in leukocytes using the alkaline (pH>13) single cell gel electrophoresis (SCG) assay. Chromosomal damage was evaluated in lymphocytes mitogenically stimulated to divide postexposure using the cytochalasin B-binucleate cell micronucleus assay. Cells were exposed at 37±1°C, for 3 or 24 h at average specific absorption rates (SARs) of 1.0-10.0 W/kg. Exposure for either 3 or 24 h did not induce a significant increase in DNA damage in leukocytes, nor did  exposure for 3 h induce a significant increase in micronucleated cells among lymphocytes. However, exposure to each of the four RF signal technologies for 24 h at an average SAR of 5.0 or 10.0 W/kg resulted in a significant and reproducible increase in the frequency of micronucleated lymphocytes. The magnitude of the response (approximately four fold) was independent of the technology, the presence or absence of voice modulation, and the frequency (837 vs. 1909.8 MHz). This research demonstrates that, under extended exposure conditions, RF signals at an average SAR of at least 5.0 W/kg are capable of inducing chromosomal damage in human lymphocytes.






Zhang DY, Xu ZP, Chiang H, Lu DQ, Zeng QL.  [Effects of GSM 1800 MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic fields on DNA damage in Chinese hamster lung cells.] Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 40(3):149-152, 2006.
[Article in Chinese]

OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of GSM 1800 MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF EMF) on DNA damage in Chinese hamster lung (CHL) cells. METHODS: The cells were intermittently exposed or sham-exposed to GSM 1800 MHz RF EMF (5 minutes on/10 minutes off) at a special absorption rate (SAR) of 3.0 W/kg for 1 hour or 24 hours. Meanwhile, cells exposed to 2-acetaminofluorene, a DNA damage agent, at a final concentration of 20 mg/L for 2 hours were used as positive control. After exposure, cells were fixed by using 4% paraformaldehyde and processed for phosphorylated form of H2AX (gammaH2AX) immunofluorescence measurement. The primary antibody used for immunofluorescence was mouse monoclonal antibody against gammaH2AX and the secondary antibody was fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated goat anti-mouse IgG. Nuclei were counterstained with 4, 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI). The gammaH2AX foci and nuclei were visualized with an Olympus AX70 fluorescent microscope. Image Pro-Plus software was used to count the gammaH2AX foci in each cell. For each exposure condition, at least 50 cells were selected to detect gammaH2AX foci. Cells were classified as positive when more than five foci were detected. The percentage of gammaH2AX foci positive cells was adopted as the index of DNA damage. RESULTS: The percentage of gammaH2AX foci positive cell of 1800 MHz RF EMF exposure for 24 hours (37.9 +/- 8.6)% or 2-acetylaminofluorene exposure (50.9 +/- 9.4)% was significantly higher compared with the sham-exposure (28.0 +/- 8.4)%. However, there was no significant difference between the sham-exposure and RF EMF exposure for 1 hour (31.8 +/- 8.7)%. CONCLUSION: 1800 MHz RF EMF (SAR, 3.0 W/kg) for 24 hours might induce DNA damage in CHL cells.



Aksoy U, Sahin S, Ozkoc S, Ergor G. The effect of electromagnetic waves on the growth of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar. Saudi Med J. 26(9):1388-1390, 2005.

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of electromagnetic radiation of a digital Global System for Mobile Communication mobile telephone (900 MHz) on Entamoeba histolytica (E. histolytica) and Entamoeba dispar (E. dispar) (cysts or trophozoites, or both) in a 24-hour period. METHODS: This study was carried out from April 2004 to May 2004 at the Department of Parasitology, Medical Faculty of Dokuz Eylul University in Izmir, Turkey. The cultivated isolate tubes, which were exposed to electromagnetic field at 37OC, were evaluated as study group, whereas the tubes without exposure were assessed as control group. Finally, only living parasites in all tubes were counted using a hemacytometer. The effect of the temperature was evaluated for both control and study groups. RESULTS: The influence of electromagnetic field and temperature was assessed separately for the study group. The parasite number of E. histolytica decreased after exposure at 37OC and room temperature (p=0.009) compared to the decrease in the control group (p=0.009). The parasite number of E. dispar also decreased after exposure at 37OC and room temperature (p=0.009). In comparison to control tubes, this was a significant decrease (p=0.008). In the case of exposure of E. histolytica the results did not reveal any significant difference between temperature degrees to magnetic field (p=0.459) and E. dispar (p=0.172). CONCLUSION: Our findings show that exposure to electromagnetic field for a certain period of time may cause damage that can lead to death in single-cell organisms.




Markkanen A, Penttinen P, Naarala J, Pelkonen J, Sihvonen A-P, Juutilainen J.  Apoptosis induced by ultraviolet radiation is enhanced by amplitude modulated radiofrequency radiation in mutant yeast cells Bioelectromagnetics 25:127-133, 2004.

The aim of this study was to investigate whether radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure affects cell death processes of yeast cells. Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cells of the strains KFy417 (wild-type) and KFy437 (cdc48-mutant) were exposed to 900 or 872 MHz RF fields, with or without exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and incubated simultaneously with elevated temperature (+37°C) to induce apoptosis in the cdc48-mutated strain. The RF exposure was carried out in a special waveguide exposure chamber where the temperature of the cell cultures can be precisely controlled. Apoptosis was analyzed using the annexin V-FITC method utilizing flow cytometry. Amplitude modulated (217 pulses per second) RF exposure significantly enhanced UV induced apoptosis in cdc48-mutated cells, but no effect was observed in cells exposed to unmodulated fields at identical time-average specfic absorption rates (SAR, 0.4 or 3.0 W/kg). The findings suggest that amplitude modulated RF fields, together with known damaging agents, can affect the cell death process in mutated yeast cells.




Panagopoulos DJ, Chavdoula ED, Nezis IP, Margaritis LH Cell death induced by GSM 900-MHz and DCS 1800-MHz mobile telephony radiation. Mutat Res. 2006 Oct 10; [Epub ahead of print] .


In the present study, the TUNEL (Terminal deoxynucleotide transferase dUTP Nick End Labeling) assay - a well known technique widely used for detecting fragmented DNA in various types of cells - was used to detect cell death (DNA fragmentation) in a biological model, the early and mid stages of oogenesis of the insect Drosophila melanogaster. The flies were exposed in vivo to either GSM 900-MHz (Global System for Mobile telecommunications) or DCS 1800-MHz (Digital Cellular System) radiation from a common digital mobile phone, for few minutes per day during the first 6 days of their adult life. The exposure conditions were similar to those to which a mobile phone user is exposed, and were determined according to previous studies of ours [D.J. Panagopoulos, A. Karabarbounis, L.H. Margaritis, Effect of GSM 900-MHz mobile phone radiation on the reproductive capacity of D. melanogaster, Electromagn. Biol. Med. 23 (1) (2004) 29-43; D.J. Panagopoulos, N. Messini, A. Karabarbounis, A.L. Philippetis, L.H. Margaritis, Radio frequency electromagnetic radiation within "safety levels" alters the physiological function of insects, in: P. Kostarakis, P. Stavroulakis (Eds.), Proceedings of the Millennium International Workshop on Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Fields, Heraklion, Crete, Greece, October 17-20, 2000, pp. 169-175, ISBN: 960-86733-0-5; D.J. Panagopoulos, L.H. Margaritis, Effects of electromagnetic fields on the reproductive capacity of D. melanogaster, in: P. Stavroulakis (Ed.), Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Fields, Springer, 2003, pp. 545-578], which had shown a large decrease in the oviposition of the same insect caused by GSM radiation. Our present results suggest that the decrease in oviposition previously reported, is due to degeneration of large numbers of egg chambers after DNA fragmentation of their constituent cells, induced by both types of mobile telephony radiation. Induced cell death is recorded for the first time, in all types of cells constituting an egg chamber (follicle cells, nurse cells and the oocyte) and in all stages of the early and mid-oogenesis, from germarium to stage 10, during which programmed cell death does not physiologically occur. Germarium and stages 7-8 were found to be the most sensitive developmental stages also in response to electromagnetic stress induced by the GSM and DCS fields and, moreover, germarium was found to be even more sensitive than stages 7-8.

8. Embryo Mortality


Grigor'ev IuG.  [Biological effects of mobile phone electromagnetic field on chick embryo (risk assessment using the mortality rate)] Radiats Biol Radioecol. 43(5):541-543, 2003.

[Article in Russian]

Chicken embryos were exposed to EMF from GSM mobile phone during the embryonic development (21 days). As a result the embryo mortality rate in the incubation period increased to 75% (versus 16% in control group).


9. Blood Brain Barrier



Salford LG, Brun A, Sturesson K, Eberhardt JL, Persson BR Permeability of the blood-brain barrier induced by 915 MHz electromagnetic radiation, continuous wave and modulated at 8, 16, 50, and 200 Hz. Microsc Res Tech 27(6):535-542, 1994.
Biological effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) on the blood-brain barrier (BBB) can be studied in sensitive and specific models. In a previous investigation of the permeability of the blood-brain barrier after exposure to the various EMF-components of proton magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we found that the exposure to MRI induced leakage of Evans Blue labeled proteins normally not passing the BBB of rats [Salford et al. (1992), in: Resonance Phenomena in Biology, Oxford University Press, pp. 87-91]. In the present investigation we exposed male and female Fischer 344 rats in a transverse electromagnetic transmission line chamber to microwaves of 915 MHz as continuous wave (CW) and pulse-modulated with repetition rates of 8, 16, 50, and 200 s-1. The specific energy absorption rate (SAR) varied between 0.016 and 5 W/kg. The rats were not anesthetized during the 2-hour exposure. All animals were sacrificed by perfusion-fixation of the brains under chloral hydrate anesthesia about 1 hour after the exposure. The brains were perfused with saline for 3-4 minutes, and thereafter fixed in 4% formaldehyde for 5-6 minutes. Central coronal sections of the brains were dehydrated and embedded in paraffin and sectioned at 5 microns. Albumin and fibrinogen were demonstrated immunohistochemically. The results show albumin leakage in 5 of 62 of the controls and in 56 of 184 of the animals exposed to 915 MHz microwaves. Continuous wave resulted in 14 positive findings of 35, which differ significantly from the controls (P = 0.002).




Salford LG, Brun AR, Eberhardt JL, Malmgren L, Persson BRR, Nerve cell damage in mammalian brain after exposure to microwaves from GSM mobile phones. Environ Health Persp 111:881-883, 2003.


The possible risks of radio-frequency electromagnetic fields for the human body is a growing concern for the society. We have earlier shown that weak pulsed microwaves give rise to a significant leakage of albumin through the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Now we have investigated whether a pathological leakage over the BBB might be combined with damage to the neurons. Three groups of each 8 rats were exposed for 2 hours to GSM mobile phone electromagnetic fields of different strengths. We found, and present here for the first time, highly significant (p< 0.002) evidence for neuronal damage in both the cortex, the hippocampus and the basal ganglia in the brains of exposed rats.






Schirmacher A, Winters S, Fischer S, Goeke J, Galla H, Kullnick U, Ringelstein EB, Stogbauer F, Electromagnetic fields (1.8 GHz) increase the permeability to sucrose of the blood-brain barrier in vitro. Bioelectromagnetics 21(5):338-345, 2000.

We report an investigation on the influence of high frequency electromagnetic

fields (EMF) on the permeability of an in vitro model of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Our model was a co-culture consisting of rat astrocytes and porcine brain capillary endothelial cells (BCEC). Samples were characterized morphologically by scanning electron microscopy and immunocytochemistry. The BBB phenotype of the BCEC was shown by the presence of zona occludens protein (ZO-1) as a marker for tight junctions and the close contact of the cells together with the absence of intercellular clefts. Permeability measurements using (14)C-sucrose indicated a physiological tightness which correlated with the morphological findings and verified the usefulness of our in vitro model. Samples were exposed to EMF conforming to the GSM1800-standard used in mobile telephones (1.8 GHz). The permeability of the samples was monitored over four days and compared with results of samples that were cultured identically but not exposed to EMF. Exposure to EMF increased permeability for (14)C-sucrose significantly compared to unexposed samples. The underlying pathophysiological mechanism remains to be investigated.



10. Brain Tumours



Hardell L, Mild KH, Carlsberg M.  Case-control study on the use of cellular and cordless phones and the risk for malignant brain tumours. Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 78:931-936, 2002.


Purpose: To investigate the use of cellular and cordless phones and the risk for malignant brain tumours.

Materials and Methods: A case-control study was performed on 649 patents aged 20-80 years of both sexes with malignant brain tumour diagnosed from 1 January 1997 to 30 June 2000. All patients were alive during the time of the study and had histopathology verified brain tumours. One matched control to each case was selected from the Swedish Population Register. The study area was the Uppasala-Orebro, Stockholm, Linkoping and Goteborg medical regions of Sweden.

Results: Exposure was assessed by a questionnaire answered by 588 (91%) cases and 581 (90%) controls. Phone usage was defined as ‘ever use' and usage starting 1 year before dagnosis was disregarded. Overall, no significantly increased risks were found: analogue cellular phones yielded an odds ratio (OR) =1.13, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.82-1.57, digital cellular phones OR = 1.13, CI = 0.86-1.48, and cordless phones OR = 1.13, CI =0.85-1.50. For ipsilateral (same side) radiofrequency exposure, analogue mobile phones gave OR = 1.85, CI = 1.16-2.96, for all malignant brain tumours. For astrocytoma, this risk was OR = 1.95, CI = 1.12-3.39.  For all malignant brain tumours, digital mobile phones yielded OR = 1.59, CI = 1.05-2.41, and cordless phones yielded OR = 1.46, CI = 0.96-2.23, in the analysis of ipsilateral exposure.

Conclusion: The ipsilateral use of an analogue cellular phone yielded a significantly increased risk for malignant brain tumours.




Hardell L, Hansson Mild K, Pahlson A, Hallquist A, Ionizing radiation, cellular telephones and the risk of brain tumours. Europ J Cancer Prevent 10:523-529, 2001.


A case-control study on brain tumours included 233 patients aged 20-80 years and alive at the study time. They had histopathologically verified brain tumour and lived in the Upsala-Orebro region (1994-1996) or in Stockholm region (1995-1996). Two matched controls to each case were selected from the Swedish Population Register. Two hundred and nine cases (90%) and 425 controls (91%) answered the questionnaire. Results are presented for the whole study group, as given here, and for malignant and benign tumours separately. For workers in the chemical industry the odds ratio (OR) was 4.10, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.25-13.4 and laboratory workers OR 3.21, 95%CI 1.16-8.85. Radiotherapy of the head and neck region gave OR 3.61, 95% CI 0.65-19.9. Medical diagnostic X-ray of the same area yielded OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.04-2.58. Work as a physician gave OR 6.00, 95% CI 0.62-57.7.   All three cases had worked with fluoroscopy. Ipsilateral (same side) use of a cellular telephone increased the risk of tumours in the temporal, temporo-parietal and occipital areas, with OR 2.42, 95% CI 0.97-6.05 (i.e., the anatomical areas with highest exposure to microwaves from a mobile phone).




Hardell L, Nasman A, Pahlson A, Hallquist A, Case-Control Study on Radiology Work, Medical X-ray Investigations, and Use of Cellular Telephones as Risk Factors for Brain Tumors. Medscape General Medicine May 4, 2000.



Context. Ionizing radiation is a well-established risk factor for brain tumors. During recent years, microwave exposure from the use of cellular telephones has been discussed as a potential risk factor.
Objective. To determine risk factors for brain tumors.
Design. A case-control study, with exposure assessed by questionnaires.
Participants. A total of 233 currently living men and women, aged 20 to 80 years, were included. The case patients had histopathologically verified brain tumors and lived in the Uppsala-Orebro region (1994-1996) or the Stockholm region (1995-1996). Two matched controls to each case were selected from the Swedish Population Register.
Main Outcome Measures. Ionizing radiation and use of cellular telephones as risk factors for brain tumors.
Results. A total of 209 cases (90%) and 425 controls (91%) answered the questionnaire. Work as a physician yielded an odds ratio (OR) of 6.00, with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 0.62 to 57.7. All three case patients had worked with fluoroscopy. Radiotherapy of the head and neck region yielded an OR of 3.61 (95% CI, 0.65-19.9). Medical diagnostic x-ray examination of the same area yielded an OR of 2.10 (95% CI, 1.25-3.53), with a tumor induction period of 5 years or more. Chemical industry work yielded an OR of 4.10 (95% CI, 1.25-13.4), and laboratory work yielded an OR of 3.21 (95% CI, 1.16-8.85). Ipsilateral use of cellular telephones increased the risk for tumors in the temporal, temporoparietal, and occipital lobes (OR, 2.42; 95% CI, 0.97-6.05), ie, the anatomic areas with highest exposure to microwaves from a mobile telephone. The result was further strengthened (OR, 2.62; 95% CI, 1.02-6.71) in a multivariate analysis that included laboratory work and medical diagnostic x-ray investigations of the head and neck.
Conclusion. Exposure to ionizing radiation, work in laboratories, and work in the chemical industry increased the risk of brain tumors. Use of a cellular telephone was associated with an increased risk in the anatomic area with highest exposure.






Hardell L, Hallquist A, Hansson Mild K, Carlberg M, Pahlson A, Lilja A. cellular and cordless telephones and the risk for brain tumours. Europ J Cancer Prevent 11:377-386, 2002.


Microwave exposure from the use of cellular telephones ahs been discussed in recently years as a potential risk factor for brain tumours. We included in a case-control study 1617 patients aged 20-80 years of both sexes with brain tumour diagnosed between 1 January 1997 and 30 June 2000. They were alive at the study time and had histopathologically verified brain tumour. One matched control to each case was selected from the Swedish Population Register. The study area was the Uppsala-Orebro, Stockholm, Linkoping and Goteborg medical regions of Sweden. Exposure was assessed by a questionnaire that was answered by 1429 (88%) cases and 1470 (91%) controls. In total, use of analogue cellular telephones gave an increased risk with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.3 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.6). With a tumour induction period of >10 years the risk increased further; OR 1.8 (95% CI 1.1-2.9). No clear association was found for digital or cordless telephones. With regard to the anatomical area of the tumour and exposure to microwaves, the risk was increased for tumours located in the temporal area on the same side of the brain that was used during phone calls; for analogue cellular telephones the OR was 2.5 (95% CI 1.3-4.9). Use of a telephone on the opposite side of the brain was not associated with an increased risk for brain tumours. With regard to different tumour types, the highest risk was for acoustic neurinoma (OR 3.5, 95% CI 1.8-6.8) among analogue cellular telephone users.


Hardell L, Mild KH, Carlberg M. Further aspects on cellular and cordless telephones and brain tumours. Int J Oncol 22(2):399-407, 2003.

We included in a case-control study on brain tumours and mobile and cordless telephones 1,617 patients aged 20-80 years of both sexes diagnosed during January 1, 1997 to June 30, 2000. They were alive at the study time and had histopathology verified brain tumour. One matched control to each case was selected from the Swedish Population Register. The study area was the Uppsala-Orebro, Stockholm, Linkoping and Goteborg medical regions of Sweden. Exposure was assessed by a questionnaire that was answered by 1,429 (88%) cases and 1,470 (91%) controls. In total use of analogue cellular telephones gave an increased risk with odds ratio (OR)=1.3, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.04-1.6, whereas digital and cordless phones did not overall increase the risk significantly. Ipsilateral use of analogue phones gave OR=1.7, 95% CI=1.2-2.3, digital phones OR=1.3, 95% CI=1.02-1.8 and cordless phones OR=1.2, 95% CI=0.9-1.6. The risk for ipsilateral use was significantly increased for astrocytoma for all studied phone types, analogue phones OR=1.8,95% CI=1.1-3.2, digital phones OR=1.8, 95% CI=1.1-2.8, cordless phones OR=1.8, 95% CI=1.1-2.9. Use of a telephone on the opposite side of the brain was not associated with a significantly increased risk for brain tumours. Regarding anatomical area of the tumour and exposure to microwaves, the risk was increased for tumours located in the temporal area on the same side of the brain that was used during phone calls, significantly so for analogue cellular telephones OR=2.3, 95% CI=1.2-4.1. For acoustic neurinoma OR=4.4, 95% CI=2.1-9.2 was calculated among analogue cellular telephone users. When duration of use was analysed as a continuous variable in the total material, the risk increased per year for analogue phones with OR=1.04, 95% CI=1.01-1.08. For astrocytoma and ipsilateral use the trend was for analogue phones OR=1.10, 95% CI=1.02-1.19, digital phones OR=1.11, 95% CI=1.01-1.22, and cordless phones OR=1.09, 95% CI=1.01-1.19. There was a tendency of a shorter tumour induction period for ipsilateral exposure to microwaves than for contralateral, which may indicate a tumour promotor effect.


Hardell L, Mild KH, Sandstrom M, Carlberg M, Hallquist A, Pahlson A. Vestibular schwannoma, tinitus and cellular telephones. Neuroepidemiol 22:124-129, 2003.


Cases with tinnitus after using analogue cellular telephones are presented. An increased odds radio of 3.45, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.77-6.76, was found for vestibular schwannoma (VS) associated with the use of analogue cell phones.  During the time period 1960-1998, the age-standardized incidence of VS in Sweden significantly increased yearly by +2.53% (CI 1.71-3.35). A significant increases in the incidence of VS was only found for the latter of the two time period 1960-1979 and 1980-1998. For all other brain tumors taken together, the incidence significantly increased yearly by +0.80% (CI 0.59-1.02) for the time period 1960-1998, although the increase was only significant for benign tumors other than VS during 1960-1979.




Hardell, L, Nasman, A, Pahlson, A, Hallquist, A, Hansson Mild, K, Use of cellular telephones and the risk for brain tumours: A case-control study. Int J Oncol 15(1):113-116, 1999.


The use of cellular telephones has increased dramatically during the 1990's in the world. In the 1980's the analogue NMT system was used whereas the digital GSM system was introduced in early 1990's and is now the preferred system. Case reports of brain tumours in users initiated this case-control study on brain tumours and use of cellular telephones. Also other exposures were assessed. All cases, both males and females, with histopathologically verified brain tumour living in Uppsala-Orebro region (1994-96) and Stockholm region (1995-96) aged 20-80 at the time of diagnosis and alive at start of the study were included, 233 in total. Two controls to each case were selected from the Swedish Population Register matched for sex, age and study region. Exposure was assessed by questionnaires supplemented over the phone. The analyses were based on answers from 209 (90%) cases and 425 (91%) controls. Use of cellular telephone gave odds ratio (OR) = 0.98 with 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0. 69-1.41. For the digital GSM system OR = 0.97, CI = 0.61-1.56 and for the analogue NMT system OR = 0.94, CI = 0.62-1.44 were calculated. Dose-response analysis and using different tumour induction periods gave similar results. Non-significantly increased risk was found for tumour in the temporal or occipital lobe on the same side as a cellular phone had been used, right side OR = 2.45, CI = 0.78-7.76, left side OR = 2.40, CI = 0.52-10.9 Increased risk was found only for use of the NMT system. For GSM use the observation time is still too short for definite conclusions. An increased risk for brain tumour in the anatomical area close to the use of a cellular telephone should be especially studied in the future.




Hardell L, Carlberg M, Hansson Mild K. Use of cellular telephones and brain tumour risk in urban and rural areas. Occup Environ Med 62:390-394, 2005a.


Aim: To investigate the association between the use of cellular or cordless telephones and the risk for brain tumours in different geographical areas, urban and rural.

Methods: patients aged 20-80 years, living in the middle part of Sweden, and diagnosed between 1 January 1997 and 30 June 2000 were included. One control matched for sex and age in five year age groups was selected for each case. Use of different phone types was assessed by a questionnaire.

Results: The number of participating cases was 1429; there were 1470 controls. An effect of rural living was most pronounced for digital cellular telephones. Living in rural areas yielded an odd ratio (OR) of 1.4 (95% CI 0.98 to 2.0), increasing to 3.2 (95% CI 1.2 to 8.4) with > 5 year latency time for digital phones. The corresponding Ors for living in urban areas were 0.9 (95% CI 0.8 to 1.2) and 0.9 (95% CI 0.6 to 1.4), respectively. This effect was most obvious for malignant brain tumours.

Conclusion: In future studies, place of residence should be considered in assessment of exposure to microwaves from cellular telephone, although the results in this study must be interpreted with caution due to low numbers in some of the calculations.



Hardell L, Carlberg M, Hansson Mild K. Case-Control Study on Cellular and Cordless Telephones and the Risk for Acoustic Neuroma or Meningioma in Patients Diagnosed 2000-2003. Neuroepidemiology 25:120-128, 2005b. 


We performed a case-control study on the use of cellular and cordless telephones and the risk for brain tumors. We report the results for benign brain tumors with data from 413 cases (89% response rate), 305 with meningioma, 84 with acoustic neuroma, 24 with other types and 692 controls (84% response rate). For meningioma, analogue phones yielded odds ratio (OR) = 1.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.97-3.0, increasing to OR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.1-4.3 with a >10-year latency period. Also digital cellular phones and cordless phones increased the risk to some extent. For acoustic neuroma, analogue phones gave OR = 4.2, 95% CI = 1.8-10 increasing to OR = 8.4, 95% CI = 1.6-45 with a >15-year latency period, but based on low numbers. Digital phones yielded OR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.05-3.8, whereas for cordless phones OR was not significantly increased. In the multivariate analysis, analogue phones represented a significant risk factor for acoustic neuroma.



Hardell, L., Carlberg, M., Mild, K.,  Case-control study of the association between the use of cellular and cordless telephones and malignant brain tumors diagnosed during 2000-2003.  Environmental Research. 100: 232-241, 2006a.

We performed a case-control study on the use of cellular and cordless telephones and the risk for brain tumors diagnosed during 2000-2003. We report the results for malignant brain tumors with data from 317 cases (88%) and 692 controls (84%). The use of analog cellular phones yielded odds ratio (OR) of 2.6 and a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 1.5-4.3, increasing to OR=3.5 and 95% CI=2.0-6.4 with a >10-year latency period. Regarding digital cellular telephones, the corresponding results were OR=1.9, 95% CI=1.3-2.7 and OR=3.6, 95% CI=1.7-7.5, respectively. Cordless telephones yielded OR=2.1, 95% CI=1.4-3.0, and with a >10-year latency period, OR=2.9, 95% CI=1.6-5.2. The OR increased with the cumulative number of hours of use and was highest for high-grade astrocytoma. A somewhat increased risk was also found for low-grade astrocytoma and other types of malignant brain tumors, although not significantly so. In multivariate analysis, all three phone types studied showed an increased risk.



Hardell L, Carlberg M, Hansson Mild K. Pooled analysis of two case-control studies on the use of cellular and cordless telephones and the risk of benign brain tumours diagnosed during 1997-2003. Int J Oncol. 28(2):509-518, 2006b.

The use of cellular and cordless telephones and the risk of brain tumours is of concern since the brain is a high exposure area. We present the results of a pooled analysis of two case-control studies on benign brain tumours diagnosed during 1997-2003 including answers from 1,254 (88%) cases and 2,162 (89%) controls aged 20-80 years. For acoustic neuroma, the use of analogue cellular phones gave an odds ratio (OR) of 2.9 and a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 2.0-4.3; for digital cellular phones, OR=1.5; 95% CI=1.1-2.1; and for cordless telephones, OR=1.5, 95% CI=1.04-2.0. The highest OR was found for analogue phones with a latency period of >15 years; OR=3.8, 95% CI=1.4-10. Regarding meningioma, the results were as follows: for analogue phones, OR=1.3, 95% CI=0.99-1.7; for digital phones, OR=1.1, 95% CI=0.9-1.3; and for cordless phones, OR=1.1, 95% CI=0.9-1.4. In the multivariate analysis, a significantly increased risk of acoustic neuroma was found with the use of analogue phones.






Hardell LO, Carlberg M, Soderqvist F, Hansson Mild K, Morgan LL Long-term use of cellular phones and brain tumours - increased risk associated with use for > 10 years. Occup Environ Med. 2007 Apr 4; [Epub ahead of print]

AIM: To evaluate brain tumour risk among long-term users of cellular telephones. METHODS: One cohort study and 13 case-control studies were identified on this topic. Data were scrutinized for use of mobile phone for > 10 years and ipsilateral exposure if presented. RESULTS: The cohort study was of limit value due to methodological shortcomings in the study. Of the 13 case-control studies, 9 gave results for > 10 years use or latency period. Most of these results were based on low numbers. Clearly an association with acoustic neuroma was found in four studies with two- to three-fold increased risk in the group with at least 10 years use of a mobile phone. No risk was found in one study, but the tumour size was significantly larger among users. Five studies gave results for malignant brain tumours in that latency group. All gave increased OR especially for ipsilateral exposure. Highest OR = 5.4, 95 % CI = 3.0-9.6 was calculated for high-grade glioma and ipsilateral exposure in one study. CONCLUSIONS: Results from present studies on use of mobile phones for > 10 years give a consistent pattern of an increased risk for acoustic neuroma and glioma, most pronounced for high-grade glioma. The risk is highest for ipsilateral exposure.



Lonn S, Ahlbom A, Hall P, Feychting M. Mobile Phone Use and the Risk of Acoustic Neuroma. Epidemiology. 15(6):653-659, 2004.

BACKGROUND:: Radiofrequency exposure from mobile phones is concentrated to the tissue closest to the handset, which includes the auditory nerve. If this type of exposure increases tumor risk, acoustic neuroma would be a potential concern. METHODS:: In this population-based case-control study we identified all cases age 20 to 69 years diagnosed with acoustic neuroma during 1999 to 2002 in certain parts of Sweden. Controls were randomly selected from the study base, stratified on age, sex, and residential area. Detailed information about mobile phone use and other environmental exposures was collected from 148 (93%) cases and 604 (72%) controls. RESULTS:: The overall odds ratio for acoustic neuroma associated with regular mobile phone use was 1.0 (95% confidence interval = 0.6-1.5). Ten years after the start of mobile phone use the estimates relative risk increased to 1.9 (0.9-4.1); when restricting to tumors on the same side of the head as the phone was normally used, the relative risk was 3.9 (1.6-9.5). CONCLUSIONS:: Our findings do not indicate an increased risk of acoustic neuroma related to short-term mobile phone use after a short latency period. However, our data suggest an increased risk of acoustic neuroma associated with mobile phone use of at least 10 years' duration.





Hansson Mild K, Hardell L, Carlberg M. Pooled analysis of two Swedish case-control studies on the use of mobile and cordless telephones and the risk of brain tumours diagnosed during 1997-2003. Int J Occup Saf Ergon. 13(1):63-71, 2007.

Here we present the pooled analysis of 2 case-control studies on the association of brain tumours with mobile phone use. Use of analogue cellular phones increased the risk for acoustic neuroma by 5%, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2-9% per 100 hrs of use. The risk increased for astrocytoma grade III-IV with latency period with highest estimates using >10-year time period from first use of these phone types. The risk increased per one year of use of analogue phones by 10%, 95% CI = 6-14%, digital phones by 11%, 95% CI = 6-16%, and cordless phones by 8%, 95% CI = 5-12%. For all studied phone types OR for brain tumours, mainly acoustic neuroma and malignant brain tumours, increased with latency period, especially for astrocytoma grade III-IV.



Muscat JE,  Malkin MG,  Shore RE,. Thompson S, Neugut AL, Stellman SD,  Bruce J.  Handheld cellular telephones and risk of acoustic neuroma. Neurology 58:1304-1306, 2002.


The hypothesis that intracranial energy deposition from handheld cellular telephones causes acoustic neuroma was tested in an epidemiologic study of 90 patients and 86 control subjects. The relative risk was 0.9 (p = 0.07) and did not vary significantly by the frequency, duration, and lifetime hours of use. In patients who used cellular telephones, the tumor occurred more often on the contralateral than ipsilateral side of the head. Further efforts should focus on potentially longer induction periods.


11. General Cancer



Repacholi, MH, Basten, A, Gebski, V, Noonan, D, Finnie, J, Harris, AW, Lymphomas in E mu-Pim1 transgenic mice exposed to pulsed 900 MHZ electromagnetic fields. Radiat Res 147(5):631-640, 1997. 


Whether radiofrequency (RF) fields are carcinogenic is controversial; epidemiological data have been inconclusive and animal tests limited. The aim of the present study was to determine whether long-term exposure to pulse-modulated RF fields similar to those used in digital mobile telecommunications would increase the incidence of lymphoma in E mu-Pim1 transgenic mice, which are moderately predisposed to develop lymphoma spontaneously. One hundred female E mu-Pim1 mice were sham-exposed and 101 were exposed for two 30-min periods per day for up to 18 months to plane-wave fields of 900 MHz with a pulse repetition frequency of 217 Hz and a pulse width of 0.6 ms. Incident power densities were 2.6-13 W/m2 and specific absorption rates were 0.008-4.2 W/kg, averaging 0.13-1.4 W/kg. Lymphoma risk was found to be significantly higher in the exposed mice than in the controls (OR = 2.4. P = 0.006, 95% CI = 1.3-4.5). Follicular lymphomas were the major contributor to the increased tumor incidence. Thus long-term intermittent exposure to RF fields can enhance the probability that mice carrying a lymphomagenic oncogene will develop lymphomas. We suggest that such genetically cancer-prone mice provide an experimental system for more detailed assessment of dose-response relationships for risk of cancer after RF-field exposure.




Stang A, Anastassiou G, Ahrens W, Bromen K, Bornfeld N, Jockel KH,
The possible role of radiofrequency radiation in the development of uveal melanoma. Epidemiology 12(1):7-12, 2001.

There are few epidemiologic studies dealing with electromagnetic radiation and uveal melanoma. The majority of these studies are exploratory and are based on job and industry titles only. We conducted a hospital-based and population-based case-control study of uveal melanoma and occupational exposures to different sources of electromagnetic radiation, including radiofrequency radiation. We then pooled these results. We interviewed a total of 118 female and male cases with uveal melanoma and 475 controls matching on sex, age, and study regions. Exposure to radiofrequency-transmitting devices was rated as (a) no radiofrequency radiation exposure, (b) possible exposure to mobile phones, or (c) probable/certain exposure to mobile phones. Exposures were rated independently by two of the authors who did not know case or control status. We used conditional logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). We found an elevated risk for exposure to radiofrequency-transmitting devices (exposure to radio sets, OR = 3.0, 95% CI = 1.4-6.3; probable/certain exposure to mobile phones, OR = 4.2, 95% CI = 1.2-14.5). Other sources of electromagnetic radiation such as high-voltage lines, electrical machines, complex electrical environments, visual display terminals, or radar units were not associated with uveal melanoma. This is the first study describing an association between radiofrequency radiation exposure and uveal melanoma. Several methodologic limitations prevent our results from providing clear evidence on the hypothesized association.


12. Immune response



Capri M, Salvioli S, Altilia S, Sevini F, Remondini D, Mesirca P, Bersani F, Monti D, Franceschi C Age-Dependent Effects of in Vitro Radiofrequency Exposure (Mobile Phone) on CD95+ T Helper Human Lymphocytes. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1067:493-499, 2006.

.Recent studies on "nonthermal" effects of mobile phone radiofrequency (RF) suggest that RF can interact with cellular functions and molecular pathways. To study the possible RF effects on human lymphocyte activation, we analyzed CD25, CD95, CD28 molecules in unstimulated and stimulated CD4+ e CD8+ T cells in vitro. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from young and elderly donors were exposed or sham-exposed to RF (1,800 MHz, Specific Absorption Rate 2 W/kg) with or without mitogenic stimulation. No significant changes in the percentage of these cell subsets were found between exposed and sham-exposed lymphocytes in both young and elderly donors. Nevertheless, after RF exposure we observed a slight, but significant, downregulation of CD95 expression in stimulated CD4+ T lymphocytes from elderly, but not from young donors. This age-related result is noteworthy given the importance of  such a molecule in regulation of the immune response.




Stankiewicz W, Dąbrowski MP, Kubacki R, Sobiczewska E, Szmigielski S Immunotropic Influence of 900 MHz Microwave GSM Signal on Human Blood Immune Cells Activated in Vitro. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine 25(1) 45-51, 2006.

In an earlier study we reported that Go phase peripheral blood mononulclear cells (PBMC) exposed to low-level (SAR = 0.18 W/kg) pulse-modulated 1300 MHz microwaves and subsequently cultured, demonstrate changed immune activity (Dabrowski et al., 2003). We investigated whether cultured immune cells induced into the active phases of cell cycle (G1, S) and then exposed to microwaves will also be sensitive to electromagnetic field. An anechoic chamber of our design containing a microplate with cultured cells and an antenna emitting microwaves (900 MHz simulated GSM signal, 27 V/m, SAR 0.024 W/kg) was placed inside the ASSAB incubator. The microcultures of PBMC exposed to microwaves demonstrated significantly higher response to mitogens and higher immunogenic activity of monocytes (LM index) than control cultures. LM index, described in detail elsewhere (Dabrowski et al., 2001), represents the monokine influence on lymphocyte mitogenic response. The results suggest that immune activity of responding lymphocytes and monocytes can be additionally intensified by 900 MHz microwaves.


13. Effects on Melatonin



Burch JB,  Reif JS, Noonan CW,  Ichinose T, Bachand AM, Koleber TL, Yost MG. Melatonin metabolite excretion among cellular telephone users. Int J Rad Biol 78: 1029-1036, 2002.

Abstract: Purpose: The relationship between cellular telephone use and excretion of the melatonin metabolite 6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate (6-OHMS) was evaluated in two populations of male electric utility workers (Study 1, n=149; Study 2, n=77).
Materials and methods: Participants collected urine samples and recorded cellular telephone use over 3 consecutive workdays. Personal 60-Hz magnetic field (MF) and ambient light exposures were characterized on the same days using EMDEX II meters. A repeated measures analysis was used to assess the effects of cellular telephone use, alone and combined with MF exposures, after adjustment for age, participation month and light exposure.
Results: No change in 6-OHMS excretion was observed among those with daily cellular telephone use >25 min in Study 1 (5 worker-days). Study 2 workers with >25 min cellular telephone use per day (13 worker-days) had lower creatinine-adjusted mean nocturnal 6-OHMS concentrations (p=0.05) and overnight 6-OHMS excretion (p=0.03) compared with those without cellular telephone use. There was also a linear trend of decreasing mean nocturnal 6-OHMS/creatinine concentrations (p=0.02) and overnight 6-OHMS excretion (p=0.08) across categories of increasing cellular telephone use. A combined effect of cellular telephone use and occupational 60-Hz MF exposure in reducing 6-OHMS excretion was also observed in Study 2.
Conclusions: Exposure-related reductions in 6-OHMS excretion were observed in Study 2, where daily cellular telephone use of >25min was more prevalent. Prolonged use of cellular telephones may lead to reduced melatonin production, and elevated 60-Hz MF exposures may potentiate the effect.



Jarupat S, Kawabata A, Tokura H, Borkiewicz A. Effects of the 1900 MHz Electromagnetic Field Emitted from Cellular Phone on Nocturnal Melatonin Secretion. J Physiol Anthropol Appl Human Sci 22(1):61-63, 2003.
Exposure to cellular phone EMF caused a significant reduction in salivary melatonin in female human subjects.




Oktem F, Ozguner F, Mollaoglu H, Koyu A, Uz E. Oxidative Damage in the Kidney Induced by 900-MHz-Emitted Mobile Phone: Protection by Melatonin. Arch Med Res. 36(4):350-355, 2005.

BACKGROUND: The mobile phones emitting 900-MHz electromagnetic radiation (EMR) may be mainly absorbed by kidneys because they are often carried in belts. Melatonin, the chief secretory product of the pineal gland, was recently found to be a potent free radical scavenger and antioxidant. The aim of this study was to examine 900-MHz mobile phone-induced oxidative stress that promotes production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on renal tubular damage and the role of melatonin on kidney tissue against possible oxidative damage in rats. METHODS: The animals were randomly grouped as follows: 1) sham-operated control group and 2) study groups: i) 900-MHz EMR exposed (30 min/day for 10 days) group and ii) 900-MHz EMR exposed+melatonin (100 mug kg(-1) s.c. before the daily EMR exposure) treated group. Malondialdehyde (MDA), an index of lipid peroxidation), and urine N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase (NAG), a marker of renal tubular damage were used as markers of oxidative stress-induced renal impairment. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were studied to evaluate the changes of antioxidant status. RESULTS: In the EMR-exposed group, while tissue MDA and urine NAG levels increased, SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px activities were reduced. Melatonin treatment reversed these effects as well. In this study, the increase in MDA levels of renal tissue and in urine NAG and also the decrease in renal SOD, CAT, GSH-Px activities demonstrated the role of oxidative mechanism induced by 900-MHz mobile phone exposure, and melatonin, via its free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties, ameliorated oxidative tissue injury in rat kidney. CONCLUSIONS: These results show that melatonin may exhibit a protective effect on mobile phone-induced renal impairment in rats.




Oral B, Guney M, Ozguner F, Karahan N, Mungan T, Comlekci S, Cesur G. Endometrial Apoptosis Induced by a 900-MHz Mobile Phone: Preventive Effects of Vitamins E and C. Adv Ther. 23(6):957-973, 2006.

Numerous reports have described the effects induced by an electromagnetic field (EMF) in various cellular systems. The purposes of this study were to examine oxidative stress that promotes production of reactive oxygen species induced by a 900-megahertz (MHz) mobile phone and the possible ameliorating effects of vitamins E and C on endometrial tissue against EMF-induced endometrial impairment and apoptosis in rats. Animals were randomly grouped as follows: (1) sham-operated control group (n=8), (2) 900 MHz EMF-exposed group (n=8; 30 min/d for 30 d), and (3) 900 MHz EMF-exposed group, treated with vitamins E and C (n=8; 50 mg/kg intramuscularly and 20 mg/kg body weight intraperitoneally before daily EMF exposure). Malondialdehyde (an index of lipid peroxidation) was used as a marker of oxidative stress-induced endometrial impairment; Bcl-2, Bax, caspase-3, and caspase-8 were assessed immunohistochemically. In this study, increased malondialdehyde levels in endometrial tissue and apoptosis illustrated the role of the oxidative mechanism induced by exposure to a 900-MHz mobile phone-like device and vitamins E and C; via free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties, oxidative tissue injury and apoptosis were ameliorated in rat endometrium. In conclusion, exposure to 900-MHz radiation emitted by mobile phones may cause endometrial apoptosis and oxidative stress, but treatment with vitamins E and C can diminish these changes and may have a beneficial effect in preventing endometrial changes in rats.


Ozguner F, Aydin G, Mollaoglu H, Gokalp O, Koyu A, Cesur G. Prevention of mobile phone induced skin tissue changes by melatonin in rat: an experimental study. Toxicol Ind Health. 20(6-10):133-139, 2004.

Most of the mobile phones in Turkey emit 900 MHz radiation which is mainly absorbed by the skin and, to a lesser extent, muscle. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects the 900 MHz electromagnetic irradiation emitted by these devices on the induction of histopathologic changes in skin and the effect of melatonin (Mel) on any of these changes. Thirty male Wistar-Albino rats were used in the study. The experimental groups were composed of: a nontreated control group, an irradiated group (IR) without Mel and an irradiated with Mel treatment group (IR + Mel). 900 MHz radiation was applied to IR group for 10 days (30 min/day). The IR + Mel group received 10 mg/kg per day melatonin in tap water for 10 days before irradiation. At the end of the tenth day, the skin graft was excized from the thoraco-abdominal area. Histopathologic changes in skin were analyzed. In the IR group, increased thickness of stratum corneum, atrophy of epidermis, papillamatosis, basal cell proliferation, increased granular cell layer (hypergranulosis) in epidermis and capillary proliferation, impairment in collagen tissue distribution and separation of collagen bundles in dermis were all observed compared to the control group. Most of these changes, except hypergranulosis, were prevented with melatonin treatment. In conclusion, exposure to 900 MHz radiation emitted by mobile phones caused mild skin changes. Furthermore, melatonin treatment can reduce these changes and may have a beneficial effect to prevent 900 MHz mobile phone-induced rat skin changes.



Ozguner F, Oktem F, Armagan A, Yilmaz R, Koyu A, Demirel R, Vural H, Uz E. Comparative analysis of the protective effects of melatonin and caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) on mobile phone-induced renal impairment in rat. Mol Cell Biochem. 276(1-2):31-37, 2005b.

Melatonin and caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), a component of honeybee propolis, were recently found to be potent free radical scavengers and antioxidants. There are a number of reports on the effects induced by electromagnetic radiation (EMR) in various cellular systems. Mechanisms of adverse effects of EMR indicate that reactive oxygen species may play a role in the biological effects of this radiation. The present study was carried out to compare the protective effects of melatonin and CAPE against 900 MHz EMR emitted mobile phone-induced renal tubular injury. Melatonin was administered whereas CAPE was given for 10 days before the exposure. Urinary N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG, a marker of renal tubular injury) and malondialdehyde (MDA, an index of lipid peroxidation), were used as markers of oxidative stress-induced renal impairment in rats exposed to EMR. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were studied to evaluate the changes of antioxidant status in renal tissue. Urinary NAG and renal MDA were increased in EMR exposed rats while both melatonin and CAPE caused a significant reduction in the levels of these parameters. Likewise, renal SOD and GSH-Px activities were decreased in EMR exposed animals while melatonin caused a significant increase in the activities of these antioxidant enzymes but CAPE did not. Melatonin caused a significant decrease in urinary NAG activity and MDA levels which were increased because of EMR exposure. CAPE also reduced elevated MDA levels in EMR exposed renal tissue, but the effect of melatonin was more potent than that of CAPE. Furthermore, treatment of EMR exposed rats with melatonin increased activities of SOD and GSH-Px to higher levels than those of control rats. In conclusion, melatonin and CAPE prevent renal tubular injury by reducing oxidative stress and protect the kidney from oxidative damage induced by 900 MHz mobile phone. Nevertheless, melatonin seems to be a more potent antioxidant compared with CAPE in kidney.




Ozguner F, Altinbas A, Ozaydin M, Dogan A, Vural H, Kisioglu AN, Cesur G, Yildirim NG. Mobile phone-induced myocardial oxidative stress: protection by a novel antioxidant agent caffeic acid phenethyl ester. Toxicol Ind Health. 21(9):223-230, 2005c.

Electromagnetic radiation (EMR) or radiofrequency fields of cellular mobile phones may affect biological systems by increasing free radicals, which appear mainly to enhance lipid peroxidation, and by changing the antioxidant defense systems of human tissues, thus leading to oxidative stress. Mobile phones are used in close proximity to the heart, therefore 900 MHz EMR emitting mobile phones may be absorbed by the heart. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), one of the major components of honeybee propolis, was recently found to be a potent free radical scavenger and antioxidant, and is used in folk medicine. The aim of this study was to examine 900 MHz mobile phone-induced oxidative stress that promotes production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the role of CAPE on myocardial tissue against possible oxidative damage in rats. Thirty rats were used in the study. Animals were randomly grouped as follows: sham-operated control group (N: 10) and experimental groups: (a) group II: 900 MHz EMR exposed group (N: 10); and (b) group III: 900 MHz EMR exposed+CAPE-treated group (N: 10). A 900 MHz EMR radiation was applied to groups II and III 30 min/day, for 10 days using an experimental exposure device. Malondialdehyde (MDA, an index of lipid peroxidation), and nitric oxide (NO, a marker of oxidative stress) were used as markers of oxidative stress-induced heart impairment. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were studied to evaluate the changes of antioxidant status. In the EMR exposed group, while tissue MDA and NO levels increased, SOD, CAT and GSH-Px activities were reduced. CAPE treatment in group III reversed these effects. In this study, the increased levels of MDA and NO and the decreased levels of myocardial SOD, CAT and GSH-Px activities demonstrate the role of oxidative mechanisms in 900 MHz mobile phone-induced heart tissue damage, and CAPE, via its free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties, ameliorates oxidative heart injury. These results show that CAPE exhibits a protective effect on mobile phone-induced and free radical mediated oxidative heart impairment in rats.




Ozguner F, Bardak Y, Comlekci S. Protective effects of melatonin and caffeic acid phenethyl ester against retinal oxidative stress in long-term use of mobile phone: A comparative study. Mol Cell Biochem. 282(1-2):83-88, 2006.

There are numerous reports on the effects of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) in various cellular systems. Melatonin and caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), a component of honeybee propolis, were recently found to be potent free radical scavengers and antioxidants. Mechanisms of adverse effects of EMR indicate that reactive oxygen species may play a role in the biological effects of this radiation. The present study was carried out to compare the efficacy of the protective effects of melatonin and CAPE against retinal oxidative stress due to long-term exposure to 900 MHz EMR emitting mobile phones. Melatonin and CAPE were administered daily for 60 days to the rats prior to their EMR exposure during our study. Nitric oxide (NO, an oxidant product) levels and malondialdehyde (MDA, an index of lipid peroxidation), were used as markers of retinal oxidative stress in rats following to use of EMR. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were studied to evaluate the changes of antioxidant status in retinal tissue. Retinal levels of NO and MDA increased in EMR exposed rats while both melatonin and CAPE caused a significant reduction in the levels of NO and MDA. Likewise, retinal SOD, GSH-Px and CAT activities decreased in EMR exposed animals while melatonin and CAPE caused a significant increase in the activities of these antioxidant enzymes. Treatment of EMR exposed rats with melatonin or CAPE increased the activities of SOD, GSH-Px and CAT to higher levels than those of control rats. In conclusion, melatonin and CAPE reduce retinal oxidative stress after long-term exposure to 900 MHz emitting mobile phone. Nevertheless, there was no statistically significant difference between the efficacies of these two antioxidants against to EMR induced oxidative stress in rat retina. The difference was in only GSH-Px activity in rat retina. Melatonin stimulated the retinal GSH-Px activity more efficiently than CAPE did.




Wood A, Loughran S, Stough C, Does evening exposure to mobile phone radiation affect subsequent melatonin production? Int. J. Rad. Biol 82:69-76, 2006.

Purpose: To test whether exposure to the emissions from a digital mobile phone handset prior to sleep alters the secretion of melatonin. Materials and methods: In a double-blind cross-over design, 55 adult volunteers were both actively exposed or sham-exposed (in random order on successive Sunday nights) to mobile phone emissions for 30 min (0.25 W average power). Urine collection occurred immediately prior to retiring to bed and on rising the next morning. Melatonin output was estimated from principal metabolite concentrations (6-sulphatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) via radioimmunoassay), urine volumes and creatinine concentrations. Results: Total melatonin metabolite output (concentration×urine volume) was unchanged between the two exposure conditions (active 14.1±1.1 µg; sham 14.6±1.3 µg). The pre- and post-bedtime outputs considered separately were also not significantly different, although the pre-bedtime value was less for active versus sham exposure. When melatonin metabolite output was estimated from the ratio of aMT6s to creatinine concentrations, the pre-bedtime value was significantly less ( p = 0.037) for active compared to sham. Examination of individual responses is suggestive of a small group of `responders'. Conclusions: Total nighttime melatonin output is unchanged by mobile phone handset emissions, but there could be an effect on melatonin onset time.


14. Sperm quality:



Agarwal A, Deepinder F, Sharma RK, Ranga G, Li J. Effect of cell phone usage on semen analysis in men attending infertility clinic: an observational study. Fertil Steril. 2007 May 3; [Epub ahead of print]

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of cell phone use on various markers of semen quality. DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: Infertility clinic. PATIENT(S): Three hundred sixty-one men undergoing infertility evaluation were divided into four groups according to their active cell phone use: group A: no use; group B: <2 h/day; group C: 2-4 h/day; and group D: >4 h/day. INTERVENTION(S): None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Sperm parameters (volume, liquefaction time, pH, viscosity, sperm count, motility, viability, and morphology). RESULT(S): The comparisons of mean sperm count, motility, viability, and normal morphology among four different cell phone user groups were statistically significant. Mean sperm motility, viability, and normal morphology were significantly different in cell phone user groups within two sperm count groups. The laboratory values of the above four sperm parameters decreased in all four cell phone user groups as the duration of daily exposure to cell phones increased. CONCLUSION(S): Use of cell phones decrease the semen quality in men by decreasing the sperm count, motility, viability, and normal morphology. The decrease in sperm parameters was dependent on the duration of daily exposure to cell phones and independent of the initial semen quality.


Erogul O, Oztas E, Yildirim I, Kir T, Aydur E, Komesli G, Irkilata HC, Irmak MK, Peker AF. Effects of electromagnetic radiation from a cellular phone on human sperm motility: an in vitro study. Arch Med Res. 37(7):840-843, 2006.

BACKGROUND: There has been growing public concern on the effects of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) emitted by cellular phones on human health. Many studies have recently been published on this topic. However, possible consequences of the cellular phone usage on human sperm parameters have not been investigated adequately. METHODS: A total number of 27 males were enrolled in the study. The semen sample obtained from each participant was divided equally into two parts. One of the specimens was exposed to EMR emitted by an activated 900 MHz cellular phone, whereas the other was not. The concentration and motility of the specimens were compared to analyze the effects of EMR. Assessment of sperm movement in all specimens was performed using four criteria: (A) rapid progressive, (B) slow progressive, (C) nonprogressive, (D) no motility. RESULTS: Statistically significant changes were observed in the rapid progressive, slow progressive and no-motility categories of sperm movement. EMR exposure caused a subtle decrease in the rapid progressive and slow progressive sperm movement. It also caused an increase in the no-motility category of sperm movement. There was no statistically significant difference in the sperm concentration between two groups. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that EMR emitted by cellular phone influences human sperm motility. In addition to these acute adverse effects of EMR on sperm motility, long-term EMR exposure may lead to behavioral or structural changes of the male germ cell. These effects may be observed later in life, and they are to be investigated more seriously.


Fejes I, Za Vaczki Z, Szollosi J, Kolosza R S, Daru J, Kova Cs L, Pa L A Is there a relationship between cell phone use and semen quality? Arch Androl. 51(5):385-393, 2005.

This study was conducted to determine a possible relationship between regular cell phone use and different human semen attributes. The history-taking of men in our university clinic was supplemented with questions concerning cell phone use habits, including possession, daily standby position and daily transmission times. Semen analyses were performed by conventional methods. Statistics were calculated with SPSS statistical software. A total of 371 were included in the study. The duration of possession and the daily transmission time correlated negatively with the proportion of rapid progressive motile sperm (r = - 0.12 and r = - 0.19, respectively), and positively with the proportion of slow progressive motile sperm (r = 0.12 and r = 0.28, respectively). The low and high transmitter groups also differed in the proportion of rapid progressive motile sperm (48.7% vs. 40.6%). The prolonged use of cell phones may have negative effects on the sperm motility characteristics.


Kilgallon SJ, Simmons LW. Image content influences men's semen quality. Biol Lett 2005 (doi:10.1098/rsbl.2005.0324)


There is increasing evidence from non-human animals that males adjust their ejaculation expenditure according to the risk of sperm competition. In this study we show that, after controlling for lifestyle factors known to influence semen quality, human males viewing images depicting sperm competition had a higher percentage of motile sperm in their ejaculates. Many lifestyle variables were confirmed to influence semen quality, including the recent suggestion that storage of mobile phones close to the testes can decrease semen quality.


15. Miscellaneous Studies:



Ayata A, Mollaoglu H, Yilmaz HR, Akturk O, Ozguner F, Altuntas I. Oxidative stress-mediated skin damage in an experimental mobile phone model can be prevented by melatonin. J Dermatol. 31(11):878-883, 2004.

Most mobile phones emit 900 MHz of radiation that is mainly absorbed by the external organs. The effects of 900 MHz of radiation on fibrosis, lipid peroxidation, and anti-oxidant enzymes and the ameliorating effects of melatonin (Mel) were evaluated in rat skin. Thirty Wistar-Albino rats were used in the study. The experimental groups were the control group, the irradiated group (IR), and the irradiated+Mel treated group (IR+Mel). A dose of 900 MHz, 2 W radiation was applied to the IR group every day for 10 days (30 min/day). The IR+Mel group received 10 mg/kg/day melatonin in tap water for 10 days before the irradiation. At the end of the 10th day, a skin specimen was excised from the thoracoabdominal area. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydroxypyroline and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and catalase (CAT) were studied in the skin samples. MDA and hydroxyproline levels and activities of CAT and GSH-Px were increased significantly in the IR group compared to the control group (p<0.05) and decreased significantly in the IR+Mel group (p<0.05). SOD activity was decreased significantly in the IR group and this decrease was not prevented by the Mel treatment. These results suggest that rats irradiated with 900 MHz suffer from increased fibrosis and lipid peroxidation (LPO). Mel treatment can reduce the fibrosis and LPO caused by radiation.


Berg G, Spallek J, Schuz J, Schlehofer B, Bohler E, Schlaefer K, Hettinger I, Kunna-Grass K, Wahrendorf J, Blettner M. Occupational Exposure to Radio Frequency/Microwave Radiation and the Risk of Brain Tumors: Interphone

It is still under debate whether occupational exposure to radio frequency/microwave electromagnetic fields (RF/MW-EMF) contributes to the development of brain tumors. This analysis examined the role of occupational RF/MW-EMF exposure in the risk of glioma and meningioma. A population-based, case-control study including 381 meningioma cases, 366 glioma cases, and 1,494 controls aged 30-69 years was performed in three German regions in 2000-2003. An exposure matrix for occupational activity was constructed by using information on RF/MW-EMF exposure collected in a computer-assisted personal interview. "High" exposure was defined as an occupational exposure that may exceed the RF/MW-EMF exposure limits for the general public recommended by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection. Multiple conditional logistic regressions were performed separately for glioma and meningioma. No significant association between occupational exposure to RF/MW-EMF and brain tumors was found. For glioma, the adjusted odds ratio for highly exposed persons compared with persons not highly exposed was 1.21 (95% confidence interval: 0.69, 2.13); for meningioma, it was 1.34 (95% confidence interval: 0.64, 2.81). However, the slight increase in risk observed with increasing duration of exposure merits further research with larger sample sizes.


Braune, S, Wrocklage, C, Raczek, J, Gailus, T, Lucking, CH, Resting blood pressure increase during exposure to a radio-frequency electromagnetic field. Lancet 351(9119):1857-1858, 1998.


Exposure of the right hemisphere to a radiofrequency EMF for 35 min causes in human subjects an increase in sympathetic efferent activity with increases the resting blood pressure between 5-10 mm Hg. The effect is likely caused by vasoconstriction.




Forgacs Z, Somosy Z, Kubinyi G, Bakos J, Hudak A, Surjan A, Thuroczy G. Effect of whole-body 1800MHz GSM-like microwave exposure on testicular steroidogenesis and histology in mice. Reprod Toxicol. 2006 Jan 21; [Epub ahead of print]

The aim of our study was to evaluate the possible effects of whole-body 1800MHz GSM-like microwave exposure on male reproduction. After repeated exposure of mice to microwaves at 0.018-0.023W/kg whole-body specific energy absorption rate (SAR) an elevated serum testosterone level was measured, but no microwave exposure related histopathological alteration could be detected in the reproductive organs. The in vitro steroidogenic response of 48h Leydig cell cultures obtained from exposed animals did not differ from the controls, suggesting that Leydig cells were not the primary targets of the applied microwave exposure or direct action of microwaves on Leydig cells was temporary only. In exposed animals the red blood cell count and volume of packed red cells were also increased. Further investigations are required to clarify the mechanism of action of the applied microwave exposure on male mice, as well as to establish the biological significance of the observed phenomena.




Grisanti G, Parlapiano C, Tamburello CC, Tine G, Zanforlin L. Cellular phone effects on otoacoustic emissions. IEEE MTT-S Digest 2: 771-774, 1998.


A study on bioelectromagnetic effects induced by the use of TACS phones, evidencing a variation of the natural response of the auditory system is presented. This study was performed applying a method based on the registration of the evoked otoacosutic emissions (transient and distortion products). The experimental results show that modulated electromagnetic fields modify the distortion products in about all the examined subjects.




Hardell L, Eriksson M, Carlberg M, Sundstrom C, Mild KH. Use of cellular or cordless telephones and the risk for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2005c Jul 5;:1-8 [Epub ahead of print]

Objectives: To evaluate the use of cellular and cordless telephones as the risk factor for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Methods: Male and female subjects aged 18-74 years living in Sweden were included during a period from 1 December 1999 to 30 April 2002. Controls were selected from the national population registry. Exposure to different agents was assessed by questionnaire. Results: In total, 910 (91%) cases and 1016 (92%) controls participated. NHL of the B-cell type was not associated with the use of cellular or cordless telephones. Regarding T-cell NHL and >5 year latency period, the use of analogue cellular phones yielded: odds ratio (OR) = 1.46, 95%; confidence interval (CI) = 0.58-3.70, digital: OR=1.92, 95%; CI=0.77-4.80 and cordless phones: OR=2.47; CI=1.09-5.60. The corresponding results for certain, e.g. cutaneous and leukaemia, T-cell lymphoma for analogue phones were: OR=3.41, 95%; CI=0.78-15.0, digital: OR=6.12, 95%; CI=1.26-29.7 and cordless phones: OR=5.48, 95%; CI=1.26-23.9. Conclusions: The results indicate an association between T-cell NHL and the use of cellular and cordless telephones, however based on low numbers and must be interpreted with caution. Regarding B-cell NHL no association was found.




Kellenyi, L, Thuroczy, G, Faludy, B, Lenard, L, Effects of mobile GSM radiotelephone exposure on the auditory brainstem response (ABR).  Neurobiology 7:79-81, 1999.


A 15-min exposure to GSM phone radiation caused an increase in auditory brainstem response in the exposed side of human subjects. Subjects also showed a hearing deficiency in the high frequency range (20 dB hearing deficiency from 2 KHz to 10 KHz).




Kerekhanjanarong V, Supiyaphun P, Naratricoon J, Laungpitackchumpon P. The effect of mobile phone to audiologic system. J Med Assoc Thai. 2005 Sep;88 Suppl 4:S231-234.

Mobile phones have come into widespread use. There are a lot of possible adverse effect to health. Use of mobile phone generate potentially harmful radiofrequency electromagnetic field (EMF) particularly for the hearing aspect. 98 subjects underwent hearing evaluations at Department of Otolaryngology, Faculty of Medicine, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Chulalongkorn University. 31 males and 67females, mean age was 30.48 +/- 9.51 years old, all subjects were investigated the hearing level by audiometry, tympanometry, otoacoustic emission (OAE) and auditory brain stem evoked response (ABR). The average of using time were 32.54 +/- 27.64 months, 57 subjects usually used the right side and 41 the left side. Average time of use per day was 26.31 +/- 30.91 minutes (range from 3 to 180 mins). When the authors compared the audiogram, both pure tone and speech audiometry, between the dominant and nondominant side, it indicated that there is no significant different. When the authors focused on the 8 subjects that used the mobile phone more than 60 mins per day. It indicated that the hearing threshold of the dominant ears was worse than the nondominant ears.




Khudnitskii, SS, Moshkarev, EA, Fomenko, TV, [On the evaluation of the influence of cellular phones on their users]. [Article in Russian] Med Tr Prom Ekol (9):20-24, 1999.


The authors studied influence of ultrahigh frequency radiation caused by cellular phones on functional state of central nervous, cardiovascular systems and local temperature changes in cellular phones users. The head area near the phone antenna appeared to be under the most intensive heating. Ultrahigh frequency radiation induces significant changes in local temperature and in physiologic parameters of central nervous and cardiovascular systems.




Kimata H. Enhancement of allergic skin wheal responses by microwave radiation from mobile phones in patients with atopic eczema/dermatitis syndrome. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 129(4):348-350, 2002.

Microwave radiation from mobile phones enhanced skin wheal responses induced by house dust mite and Japanese cedar pollen while it had no effect on wheal responses induced by histamine in patients with atopic eczema/dermatitis syndrome (AEDS). Microwave radiation also increased plasma levels of substance P (SP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in patients with AEDS. These results indicate that microwave radiation from mobile phones may enhance allergen-induced wheal responses in association with the release of SP and VIP. This finding may be useful in elucidating the pathophysiology and treatment of AEDS.




Kimata H. Microwave radiation from cellular phones increases allergen-specific IgE production. Allergy 60(6):838-839, 2005.




Monfrecola G, Moffa G, Procaccini EM. Non-ionizing electromagnetic radiations, emitted by a cellular phone, modify cutaneous blood flow. Dermatology. 207(1):10-14, 2003.

BACKGROUND: Our surroundings are full of non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation (EMR) of different frequency and power. The non-ionizing EMRs emitted by television, computer and cellular phone (CF) sets have been increasing over the past few years. OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to assess the effects of non-ionizing EMRs (frequency 3 x 10(8) to 3 x 10(11) Hz), emitted by CFs, on cutaneous blood flow in healthy volunteers. METHODS: Thirty healthy volunteers (14 male and 16 female; age: 18-53 years) entered the study. Measurements of cutaneous blood flow were taken under standard conditions (temperature and humidity), using a laser Doppler He-Ne flowmeter that was applied to the ear skin by an optical fibre probe. Microflow values were recorded without CF contact with the skin (T0), with the CF turned off but in contact with the ear skin (T1), with CF contact and turned on (T2), with CF contact, turned on and receiving (T3). The microflow values were also recorded backwards: with CF contact and set turned on (T4), with CF contact and turned off (T5), without CF contact (T6). RESULTS: The mean value of basal microflow (T0), expressed as perfusion units (PU), was 51.26+/-11.93 PU. During the T1 phase, the microflow increase was 61.38%; in T2 it was 131.74%, in T3 157.67%, in T4 139.21% and in T5 122.90%; in T6, the microflow value was 57.58+/-10 PU (similar to the basal microflow). Statistically significant cutaneous microflow values (p<0.050) were observed comparing the T1 to T5 values with basal microflow (T0). Furthermore, in comparison with T1 values (CF turned off in contact with the ear skin), the T2, T3 and T4 data were statistically significant (T2 vs. T1: t=7.763 with p<0.050; T3 vs. T1: t=9.834 with p<0.050; T4 vs. T1: t=8.885 with p<0.050).




Nam KC, Kim SW, Kim SC, Kim DW. Effects of RF exposure of teenagers and adults by CDMA cellular phones. Bioelectromagnetics. 27(7):509-514, 2006.

Many cellular phone provocation studies have been conducted since the question of increased health risk from extended usage of cellular phones became a social issue. Internationally, most studies have been conducted regarding the effects of GSM cellular phones on blood pressure and heart rate of adult volunteers. On the other hand, very few provocation studies have been conducted regarding the physiological effects of CDMA phones on teenagers. In this study, two volunteer groups consisting of 21 teenagers and 21 adults were exposed to 300 mW of radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic field emitted by a CDMA cellular phone for half an hour. Physiological parameters such as systolic and diastolic blood pressures, heart rate, respiration rate, and skin resistance were simultaneously measured. All the parameters for both groups were unaffected during the exposure except for decreased skin resistance of the teenager group (P < .0001). For the regrouped 23 male and 19 female subjects, all the parameters for both groups were unaffected during the exposure except for decreased skin resistance of the male subjects (P = .0026). Those resistances at 10 min after the terminated exposure returned to the resistances at rest regardless of the different groups of age and sex.



Oktay MF, Dasdag S. Effects of intensive and moderate cellular phone use on hearing function. Electromagn Biol Med. 25(1):13-21, 2006.

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of radiation emitted by mobile phones on the hearing of users. The study was carried out on three groups: 1) 20 men who have used a cellular phone frequently and spoken approximately 2 h per day for four years; 2) 20 men who have used a cellular phone for 10-20 min per day for four years; and 3) 20 healthy men who have never used a cellular phone (the control group). Brainstem evoked response audiometric (BERA) and pure tone audiometric (PTA) methods were used to measure the effects of exposure on hearing function of the subjects. In BERA measurements, I-III, III-V, and I-V interpeak latencies were evaluated. Interpeak latency of subjects in two experimental groups was compared to that of subjects in the control group. The BERA results showed no differences among the groups (p > 0.05).In PTA measurements, detection thresholds at 250 Hz, 500 Hz, 1000 Hz, 2000 Hz, 4000 Hz, and 8000 Hz frequencies were measured in all three groups. No differences were observed between moderate mobile phone users (10-20 min. per day) and control subjects. However, detection thresholds in those who talked approximately 2 h per day were found to be higher than those in either moderate users or control subjects. Differences at 4000 Hz for both bone and air conduction for right ears, and 500 Hz, and 4000 Hz bone and air conduction for left ears were significant for mean hearing threshold. This study shows that a higher degree of hearing loss is associated with long-term exposure to electromagnetic (EM) field generated by cellular phones.



Ozguner F, Oktem F, Ayata A, Koyu A, Yilmaz HR. A novel antioxidant agent caffeic acid phenethyl ester prevents long-term mobile phone exposure-induced renal impairment in rat. Prognostic value of malondialdehyde, N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase and nitric oxide determination. Mol Cell Biochem. 277(1-2):73-80, 2005a.

Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), a flavonoid like compound, is one of the major components of honeybee propolis. It has been used in folk medicine for many years in Middle East countries. It was found to be a potent free radical scavenger and antioxidant recently. The aim of this study was to examine long-term applied 900 MHz emitting mobile phone-induced oxidative stress that promotes production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and, was to investigate the role of CAPE on kidney tissue against the possible electromagnetic radiation (EMR)-induced renal impairment in rats. In particular, the ROS such as superoxide and nitric oxide (NO) may contribute to the pathophysiology of EMR-induced renal impairment. Malondialdehyde (MDA, an index of lipid peroxidation) levels, urinary N-acetyl-beta-D: -glucosaminidase (NAG, a marker of renal tubular injury) and nitric oxide (NO, an oxidant product) levels were used as markers of oxidative stress-induced renal impairment and the success of CAPE treatment. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in renal tissue were determined to evaluate the changes of antioxidant status. The rats used in the study were randomly grouped (10 each) as follows: i) Control group (without stress and EMR), ii) Sham-operated rats stayed without exposure to EMR (exposure device off), iii) Rats exposed to 900 MHz EMR (EMR group), and iv) A 900 MHz EMR exposed + CAPE treated group (EMR + CAPE group). In the EMR exposed group, while tissue MDA, NO levels and urinary NAG levels increased (p < 0.0001), the activities of SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px in renal tissue were reduced (p < 0.001). CAPE treatment reversed these effects as well (p < 0.0001, p < 0.001 respectively). In conclusion, the increase in NO and MDA levels of renal tissue, and in urinary NAG with the decrease in renal SOD, CAT, GSH-Px activities demonstrate the role of oxidative mechanisms in 900 MHz mobile phone-induced renal tissue damage, and CAPE, via its free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties, ameliorates oxidative renal damage. These results strongly suggest that CAPE exhibits a protective effect on mobile phone-induced and free radical mediated oxidative renal impairment in rats.



Pacini S, Ruggiero M, Sardi I, Aterini S, Gulisano F, Gulisano M. Exposure to global system for mobile communication (GSM) cellular phone radiofrequency alters gene expression, proliferation, and morphology of human skin fibroblasts. Oncol Res 13(1):19-24, 2002.

Human skin fibroblasts were exposed to global system for mobile communication (GSM) cellular phone radiofrequency for 1 h. GSM exposure induced alterations in cell morphology and increased the expression of mitogenic signal transduction genes (e.g., MAP kinase kinase 3, G2/mitotic-specific cyclin G1), cell growth inhibitors (e.g., transforming growth factor-beta), and genes controlling apoptosis (e.g., bax). A significant increase in DNA synthesis and intracellular mitogenic second messenger formation matched the high expression of MAP kinase family genes. These findings show that these electromagnetic fields have significant biological effects on human skin fibroblasts.




Panagopoulos DJ, Karabarbounis A, Margaritis LH. Effect of GSM 900-MHz mobile phone radiation on the reproductive capacity of Drosophila melanogaster.  Electromag. Biol. Med. 23:29-43, 2004.

Pulsed radio frequency, (RF), electromagnetic radiation from common GSM mobile phones, (Global System for Mobile Telecommunications) with a carrier frequency at 900 MHz, "modulated" by human voice, (speaking emission) decreases the reproductive capacity of the insect Drosophila melanogaster by 50%-60%, whereas the corresponding "nonmodulated" field (nonspeaking emission) decreases the reproductive capacity by 15%-20%. The insects were exposed to the near field of the mobile phone antenna for 6 min per day during the first 2-5 days of their adult lives. The GSM field is found to affect both females and males. Our results suggest that this field-radiation decreases the rate of cellular processes during gonad development in insects.




Papageorgiou CC, Nanou ED, Tsiafakis VG, Kapareliotis E, Kontoangelos KA, Capsalis CN, Rabavilas AD, Soldatos CR. Acute mobile phone effects on pre-attentive operation. Neurosci Lett. 2006 Jan 4; [Epub ahead of print]

There is a debate whether electromagnetic field (EMF) emitted by mobile phones (MP) have an effect on cognitive functions. Since the auditory P50 component of event-related potentials (ERPs) reflects pre-attentive processing and working memory (WM) operation, the present study was designed to investigate whether the exposure to MP-EMF affects the patterns of the P50 component of ERPs elicited during a WM test. The P50 elicited during a WM task and evoked by two warning stimuli low and high frequency (500 and 3000Hz) has been assessed in 19 normal subjects (10 women and 9 men) both without and with exposure to a 900MHz signal, emitted by a dipole antenna placed near the subjects. Results showed that the presence of MP-EMFs induced statistically significant increase in the amplitude of P50 evoked by the low frequency stimuli, at Fp1 and O1 electrode leads as compared to themselves without MP-EMF exposure. In contrast the exposure to MP-EMFs revealed statistically significant decrease of the amplitude of P50 evoked by the high frequency stimuli, at Fp1 electrode lead as compared to themselves without MP-EMF exposure. These findings provide evidence that the MP-EMF emitted by mobile phone affect pre-attentive information processing as it is reflected in P50 evoked potential. The basis of such an effect is unclear, although several possibilities exist and call for potential directions of future research.




Paredi P, Kharitonov SA, Hanazawa T, Barnes PJ, Local vasodilator response to mobile phones. Laryngoscope 111(1):159-162, 2001.

OBJECTIVES: The use of mobile phones with the resulting generation of potentially harmful electromagnetic fields (EMF) is the focus of public interest. Heat generation and the activation of the inducible form of nitric oxide (NO) synthase may be possible causes of the biological effects of EMF exposure. We investigated if a mobile telephone conversation can modify skin temperature, NO, and nasal resistance. METHODS: We studied the effect of an EMF (900 MHz) generated by a commercially available cellular phone during a 30-minute telephone conversation on skin temperature, nasal NO measured by chemiluminescence, and nasal minimal cross-sectional area (MCA) measured by rhinometry. Eleven normal subjects (mean age +/- standard error of mean [SEM], 32 +/- 5 y; 10 male) were studied. RESULTS: There was a similar and significant increase in skin temperature of the nostril and occipital area on the same side as the telephone (maximal increase 2.3 +/- 0.2 degrees C at 6 min) as well as a tendency for higher nasal NO levels (maximal increase 12.9 +/- 4.9% at 10 min), whereas the MCA was significantly reduced (maximal decrease -27 +/- 6% at 15 min). Such changes were not recorded when an earpiece was used to avoid the direct exposure to the electromagnetic field. There were no changes in the skin temperature and nasal NO measured on the opposite side to the mobile phone, whereas the MCA was significantly increased (38 +/- 10%). CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to EMF produced by a mobile phone produces biological effects that can be easily measured. Microwaves may increase skin temperature and therefore cause vasodilation and reduce MCA. Further studies are needed to study the long-term effects of mobile phone use and the relation among NO production, vasodilation, and temperature.



Pavicic I, Trosic I, Sarolic A. Comparison of 864 MHz and 935 MHz microwave radiation effects on cell culture. Arh Hig Rada Toksikol. 57(2):149-154, 2006.

The objective of this study was to compare the effects of 864 MHz and 935 MHz radiofrequency/microwave radiation on the ability of V79 cells to proliferate, form colonies and on their viability. For one, two and three hours, the cells were exposed to the 864 MHz field in a transversal electromagnetic mode cell (TEM) connected with amplifier and to the 935 MHz field in a gigahertz transversal electromagnetic mode cell (GTEM) equipped with a signal generator. The average specific absorption rate (SAR) was 0.08 W kg(-1) for the 864 MHz field and 0.12 W kg(-1) for the 935 MHz field. In comparison to the control cell samples, the growth curve of the 864 MHz irradiated cells showed a significant decrease after two-hour and three-hour exposure on the Day 3 after exposure. Likewise, cells exposed to 935 MHz microwaves for three hours showed a significant growth on Day 3 after exposure. The colony-forming ability and viability of cells exposed to 864 MHz and 935 MHz microwaves did not significantly differ from the matched controls. The applied RF/MW fields showed a similar effect on cell culture growth, colony-forming ability and viability of V79 cells.



Penafiel LM, Litovitz T, Krause D, Desta A, Mullins JM, Role of modulation on the effect of microwaves on ornithine decarboxylase activity in L929 cells. Bioelectromagnetics 18(2):132-141, 1997.


The effect of 835 MHz microwaves on the activity of ornithine decarboxylase

(ODC) in L929 murine cell was investigated at an SAR of approximately 2.5 W/kg. The results depended upon the type of modulation employed. AM frequencies of 16 Hz and 60 Hz produced a transient increase in ODC activity that reached a peak at 8 h of exposure and returned to control levels after 24 h of exposure. In this case, ODC was increased by a maximum of 90% relative to control levels. A 40% increase in ODC activity was also observed after 8 h of exposure with a typical signal from a TDMA digital cellular telephone operating in the middle of its transmission frequency range (approximately 840 MHz). This signal was burst modulated at 50 Hz, with approximately 30% duty cycle. By contrast, 8 h exposure with 835 MHz microwaves amplitude modulated with speech produced no significant change in ODC activity. Further investigations, with 8 h of exposure to AM microwaves, as a function of modulation frequency, revealed that the response is frequency dependent, decreasing sharply at 6 Hz an 600 Hz. Exposure with 835 MHz microwaves, frequency modulated with a 60 Hz sinusoid, yielded no significant enhancement in ODC activity for exposure times ranging between 2 and 24 h. Similarly, exposure with a typical signal from an AMPS analog cellular telephone, which uses a form of frequency modulation, produced no significant enhancement in ODC activity. Exposure with 835 MHz continuous wave microwaves produced no effects for exposure times between 2 and 24 h, except for a small but statistically significant enhancement in ODC activity after 6 h of exposure. Comparison of these results suggests that effects are much more robust when the modulation causes low-frequency periodic changes in the amplitude of the microwave carrier.




Sanchez S, Milochau A, Ruffie G, Poulletier de Gannes F, Lagroye I, Haro E, Surleve-Bazeille JE, Billaudel B, Lassegues M, Veyret B. Human skin cell stress response to GSM-900 mobile phone signals. FEBS J. 2006 Nov 9; [Epub ahead of print]

In recent years, possible health hazards due to radiofrequency radiation (RFR) emitted by mobile phones have been investigated. Because several publications have suggested that RFR is stressful, we explored the potential biological effects of Global System for Mobile phone communication at 900 MHz (GSM-900) exposure on cultures of isolated human skin cells and human reconstructed epidermis (hRE) using human keratinocytes. As cell stress markers, we studied Hsc70, Hsp27 and Hsp70 heat shock protein (HSP) expression and epidermis thickness, as well as cell proliferation and apoptosis. Cells were exposed to GSM-900 under optimal culture conditions, for 48 h, using a specific absorption rate (SAR) of 2 W.kg(-1). This SAR level represents the recommended limit for local exposure to a mobile phone. The various biological parameters were analysed immediately after exposure. Apoptosis was not induced in isolated cells and there was no alteration in hRE thickness or proliferation. No change in HSP expression was observed in isolated keratinocytes. By contrast, a slight but significant increase in Hsp70 expression was observed in hREs after 3 and 5 weeks of culture. Moreover, fibroblasts showed a significant decrease in Hsc70, depending on the culture conditions. These results suggest that adaptive cell behaviour in response to RFR exposure, depending on the cell type and culture conditions, is unlikely to have deleterious effects at the skin level.



Shallom JM, Di Carlo AL, Ko D, Penafiel LM, Nakai A, Litovitz TA.
Microwave exposure induces Hsp70 and confers protection against hypoxia in chick embryos. J Cell Biochem 86(3):490-496, 2002.

To determine if microwave exposure could elicit a biological effect in the absence of thermal stress, studies were designed in which chick embryos were exposed to athermal microwave radiation (915 MHz) to look for induction of Hsp70, a protein produced during times of cellular stress that aids in the protection of cellular components. Levels of Hsp70 were found to increase within 2 h, with maximum expression (approximately 30% higher than controls) typically occurring by 3 h from the start of exposure. Other embryos were exposed to microwave radiation prior to being subjected to hypoxic stress, and were found to have significantly higher survival (P < 0.05) following re-oxygenation than non-exposed controls. The results of these studies indicate that not only can athermal microwave exposures activate the stress protein response pathway; they can also enhance survivability following exposure to a subsequent, potentially lethal stress. From a public health standpoint, it is important that more studies be performed to determine if repeated exposures, a condition likely to be found in cell phone use, are still beneficial.




Tkalec M, Malaric K, Pevalek-Kozlina B. Influence of 400, 900, and 1900 MHz electromagnetic fields on Lemna minor growth and peroxidase activity. Bioelectromagnetics. 26(3):185-193, 2005.

Increased use of radio and microwave frequencies requires investigations of their effects on living organisms. Duckweed (Lemna minor L.) has been commonly used as a model plant for environmental monitoring. In the present study, duckweed growth and peroxidase activity was evaluated after exposure in a Gigahertz Transversal Electromagnetic (GTEM) cell to electric fields of frequencies 400, 900, and 1900 MHz. The growth of plants exposed for 2 h to the 23 V/m electric field of 900 MHz significantly decreased in comparison with the control, while an electric field of the same strength but at 400 MHz did not have such effect. A modulated field at 900 MHz strongly inhibited the growth, while at 400 MHz modulation did not influence the growth significantly. At both frequencies a longer exposure mostly decreased the growth and the highest electric field (390 V/m) strongly inhibited the growth. Exposure of plants to lower field strength (10 V/m) for 14 h caused significant decrease at 400 and 1900 MHz while 900 MHz did not influence the growth. Peroxidase activity in exposed plants varied, depending on the exposure characteristics. Observed changes were mostly small, except in plants exposed for 2 h to 41 V/m at 900 MHz where a significant increase (41%) was found. Our results suggest that investigated electromagnetic fields (EMFs) might influence plant growth and, to some extent, peroxidase activity. However, the effects of EMFs strongly depended on the characteristics of the field exposure.









16. Epidemiological Phone Mast Studies



Abdel-Rassoul G, El-Fateh OA, Salem MA, Michael A, Farahat F, El-Batanouny M, Salem E. Neurobehavioral effects among inhabitants around mobile phone base stations. Neurotoxicology. 2006 Aug 1; [Epub ahead of print]

BACKGROUND: There is a general concern on the possible hazardous health effects of exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiations (RFR) emitted from mobile phone base station antennas on the human nervous system. AIM: To identify the possible neurobehavioral deficits among inhabitants living nearby mobile phone base stations. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on (85) inhabitants living nearby the first mobile phone station antenna in Menoufiya governorate, Egypt, 37 are living in a building under the station antenna while 48 opposite the station. A control group (80) participants were matched with the exposed for age, sex, occupation and educational level. All participants completed a structured questionnaire containing: personal, educational and medical histories; general and neurological examinations; neurobehavioral test battery (NBTB) [involving tests for visuomotor speed, problem solving, attention and memory]; in addition to Eysenck personality questionnaire (EPQ). RESULTS: The prevalence of neuropsychiatric complaints as headache (23.5%), memory changes (28.2%), dizziness (18.8%), tremors (9.4%), depressive symptoms (21.7%), and sleep disturbance (23.5%) were significantly higher among exposed inhabitants than controls: (10%), (5%), (5%), (0%), (8.8%) and (10%), respectively (P<0.05). The NBTB indicated that the exposed inhabitants exhibited a significantly lower performance than controls in one of the tests of attention and short-term auditory memory [Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT)]. Also, the inhabitants opposite the station exhibited a lower performance in the problem solving test (block design) than those under the station. All inhabitants exhibited a better performance in the two tests of visuomotor speed (Digit symbol and Trailmaking B) and one test of attention (Trailmaking A) than controls. The last available measures of RFR emitted from the first mobile phone base station antennas in Menoufiya governorate were less than the allowable standard level. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS: Inhabitants living nearby mobile phone base stations are at risk for developing neuropsychiatric problems and some changes in the performance of neurobehavioral functions either by facilitation or inhibition. So, revision of standard guidelines for public exposure to RER from mobile phone base station antennas and using of NBTB for regular assessment and early detection of biological effects among inhabitants around the stations are recommended.

Pub med: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=16962663&dopt=AbstractPlus




Santini R, Santini P, Danze JM, Le Ruz P, Seigne M.Study of the health of people living in the vicinity of mobile phone base stations: I. Influence of distance and sex. Pathol Biol (Paris) 50(6):369-373, 2002.

[Article in French]
A survey study using questionnaire was conducted in 530 people (270 men, 260 women) living or not in vicinity of cellular phone base stations, on 18 Non Specific Health Symptoms. Comparisons of complaints frequencies (CHI-SQUARE test with Yates correction) in relation with distance from base station and sex, show significant (p < 0.05) increase as compared to people living > 300 m or not exposed to base station, till 300 m for tiredness, 200 m for headache, sleep disturbance, discomfort, etc. 100 m for irritability, depression, loss of memory, dizziness, libido decrease, etc. Women significantly more often than men (p < 0.05) complained of headache, nausea, loss of appetite, sleep disturbance, depression, discomfort and visual perturbations. This first study on symptoms experienced by people living in vicinity of base stations shows that, in view of radioprotection, minimal distance of people from cellular phone base stations should not be < 300 m.




Wolf R, Wolf D. Increased incidence of cancer near a cell-phone transmitter station. Inter J Cancer Prev 1(2):123-128, 2004.


Significant concern has been raised about possible health effects from exposure to radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields, especially after the rapid introduction of mobile telecommunication systems. Parents are especially concerned with the possibility that children might develop cancer after exposure to the RF emissions from mobile telephone base stations erected in or near schools. The few epidemiologic studies that did report on cancer incidence in relation to RF radiation have generally presented negative or inconsistent results, and thus emphasized the need for more studies that should investigate cohorts with high RF exposure for changes in cancer incidence. The aim of this study is to investigate whether there is an increased cancer incidence in populations, living in a small area, and exposed to RF radiation from a cell-phone transmitter station.

This is an epidemiologic assessment, to determine whether the incidence of cancer cases among individuals exposed to a cell-phone transmitter station is different from tat expected in Israel, in Netanya, or as compared to people who lived in a nearby area. Participants are people (n=622) living in the area near a cell-phone transmitter station for 3-7 years who were patients of one health clinic (of DW). The exposure began 1 year before the start of the study when the station first came into service. A second cohort of individuals (n=1222) who get their medical services in a clinic located nearby with very closely matched, environment, workplace and occupational characteristics was used for comparison.

In the area of exposure (area) eight cases of different kinds of cancer were diagnosed in a period of only one year. This rate of cancers was compared both with the rate of 31 cases per 10,000 per year in the general population and the 2/1222 rate recorded in the nearby clinic (area B). Relative cancer rates for female were 10.5 for area A. 0.6 for area B and 1 for the whole town of Netanya. Cancer incidence of women in area A was thus significantly higher (p<0.0001) compared with that of area B and the whole city. A comparison of the relative risk revealed that there were 4.15 times more cases in area than in the entire population.

The study indicates an association between increased incidence of cancer and living in proximity to a cell-phone transmitter station.





Navarro EA, Segura J, Portolés M, Gómez-Perretta de Mateo C. The microwave syndrome: a preliminary study in Spain. Electromagn Biol Med. 2003;22:161-169.


A health survey was carried out in La Ñora, Murcia, Spain, in the vicinity of two GSM 900/1800 MHz cellular phone base stations. The E-field (~ 400 MHz - 3 GHz) measured in the bedroom was divided in tertiles (0.02 - 0.04 / 0.05 - 0.22 / 0.25 - 1.29 V/m). Spectrum analysis revealed the main contribution and variation for the E-field from the GSM base station. The adjusted (sex, age, distance) logistic regression model showed statistically significant positive exposure-response associations between the E-field and the following variables: fatigue, irritability, headaches, nausea, loss of appetite, sleeping disorder, depressive tendency, feeling of discomfort, difficulty in concentration, loss of memory, visual disorder, dizziness and cardiovascular problems. The inclusion of the distance, which might be a proxy for the sometimes raised "concerns explanation", did not alter the model substantially. These results support the first statistical analysis based on two groups (arithmetic mean 0,65 V/m versus 0,2 V/m) as well as the correlation coefficients between the E-field and the symptoms (Navarro et al, "The Microwave Syndrome: A preliminary Study in Spain", Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, Volume 22, Issue 2, (2003): 161 - 169). Based on the data of this study the advice would be to strive for levels not higher than 0.02 V/m for the sum total, which is equal to a power density of 0.0001 µW/cm² or 1 µW/m², which is the indoor exposure value for GSM base stations proposed on empirical evidence by the Public Health Office of the Government of Salzburg in 2002.





Eger H. et al., Umwelt-Medizin-Gesellschaft. 2004-Nov;17 (4): 326-335
Einfluss der räumlichen Nähe von Mobilfunksendeanlagen auf die Krebsinzidenz (Influence of the neighbourhood of a cellular transmitter antenna on the incidence of cancer) (Influence de la proximité d'une antenne de transmission cellulaire sur l'incidence du cancer)

[In French]

Le résultat de cette étude effectuée à NAILA en Allemagne montre que la proportion de nouveaux cas de développement de cancer était significativement plus élevée parmi les patients qui ont vécu les 10 dernières années à une distance jusqu'à 400 mètres des sites d'émetteurs cellulaires, qui ont été en opération depuis 1993, comparé aux patients qui vivaient plus loin, et que ces patients tombaient malade en moyenne 8 ans plus tôt. Entre les années 1999 à 2004, après 5 ans d'opération de l'installation émettrice, le risque relatif de contracter un cancer a triplé pour les résidents de l'aire à proximité de l'installation comparé aux habitants vivant à Naila en dehors de cette aire.


The result of this study carried out with NAILA in Germany shows that the proportion of new cases of development of cancer was significantly higher among the patients who lived the 10 last years at a distance up to 400 meters of the sites of cellular transmitters, which in operation since 1993, were compared to the patients who lived further, and who these patients fell sick earlier on average 8 years. Between the years 1999 to 2004, after 5 years of operation of the transmitting installation, the relative risk to contract a cancer has triplet for the residents of the surface near the installation compared to the inhabitants living with Naila apart from this surface.



Bortkiewicz A, Zmyślony M, Szyjkowska A, Gadzicka E.

Zakładu Fizjologii Pracy i Ergonomii, Instytutu Medycyny Pracy im. prof. J. Nofera w Lodzi. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The problem of health effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) emitted by cellular phone base stations evokes much interest in view of the fact that people living in their vicinity are fated to continuous exposure to EMF. None of the studies carried out throughout the world have revealed excessive values of standards adopted by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). A questionnaire was used as a study tool. The results of the questionnaire survey reveal that people living in the vicinity of base stations report various complaints mostly of the circulatory system, but also of sleep disturbances, irritability, depression, blurred vision, concentration difficulties, nausea, lack of appetite, headache and vertigo. The performed studies showed the relationship between the incidence of individual symptoms, the level of exposure, and the distance between a residential area and a base station. This association was observed in both groups of persons, those who linked their complaints with the presence of the base station and those who did not notice such a relation. Further studies, clinical and those based on questionnaires, are needed to explain the background of reported complaints.

PubMedID: 15620045 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Hutter HP, Moshammer H, Wallner P, Kundi M.

Department of Occupational and Social Health, Institute of Environment Health, Faculty of Medicine, Universitiy of Vienna. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

OBJECTIVE: The controversy about health risks of electromagnetic fields (EMF) has contributed in raising fears concerning emissions from celltowers. The study was to examine whether or not neighbours of celltowers are particularly concerned about adverse health effects of mobile phones and their base stations. METHODS: Prior to information delivered by medical doctors of the Institute of Environmental Health at public hearings a questionnaire was handed out to participants asking for their personal rating of several environmental health risks including those of mobile telecommunication (n = 123, response rate approx. 48%). Medical students (n = 366) served as a contrast group. RESULTS: Participants rated health risk for both, mobile phones and celltowers higher as students. A trend for higher ratings was also seen with older subjects and female sex. The risk ratings of both exposures correlated well with each other. The magnitude of the perceived risks, however, resembled that of other ubiquitous exposures like traffic noise and air pollution. CONCLUSION: Contrary to the claims of the telecommunication industry, opponents of celltowers generally do not express unusual fears concerning electromagnetic field exposure. The outcome of our study indicates that the risk rating is comparable with other perceived common hazards of the civilised world. It is hypothesised that offering information and participation to the concerned population will be efficient in reducing exaggerated fears.


17. Phone masts' effects on animals

Demonstrating it's not all in the mind


Joris Everaert; Dirk Bauwens. A Possible Effect of Electromagnetic Radiation from Mobile Phone Base Stations on the Number of Breeding House Sparrows (Passer domesticus) . Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, Volume 26, Issue 1 January 2007 , pages 63 - 72


A possible effect of long-term exposure to low-intensity electromagnetic radiation from mobile phone (GSM) base stations on the number of House Sparrows during the breeding season was studied in six residential districts in Belgium. We sampled 150 point locations within the 6 areas to examine small-scale geographic variation in the number of House Sparrow males and the strength of electromagnetic radiation from base stations. Spatial variation in the number of House Sparrow males was negatively and highly significantly related to the strength of electric fields from both the 900 and 1800 MHz downlink frequency bands and from the sum of these bands (Chi2-tests and AIC-criteria, P < 0.001). This negative relationship was highly similar within each of the six study areas, despite differences among areas in both the number of birds and radiation levels. Thus, our data show that fewer House Sparrow males were seen at locations with relatively high electric field strength values of GSM base stations and therefore support the notion that long-term exposure to higher levels of radiation negatively affects the abundance or behavior of House Sparrows in the wild.




Loscher W, Kas G, Extraordinary behavior disorders in cows in proximity to transmission stations. Der Praktische Tierarz 79:437-444, 1998. 


(Article in German)


In addition to reduction of milk yield and increased health problems, behavioral abnormalities were observed over a period of two years in a herd of diary cows maintained in close proximity to a TV and cell phone transmitting antenna. Evaluation of possible factors which could explain the abnormalities in the live stock did not disclose any factors other than the high-frequency electromagnetic fields. An experiment in which a cow with abnormal behavior was brought to a stable 20 km away from the antenna resulted in a complete normalization of the cow within five days, whereas symptoms returned when the cow was brought back to the stable nearby the antenna. In view of the previous described effects of electromagnetic fields, it might be possible that the observed abnormalities in cows are related to electromagnetic field exposure. (power densities measured 0.02-7 mW/m2).




ALFONSO BALMORI1 AND ÖRJAN HALLBERG. The Urban Decline of the House Sparrow (Passer domesticus): A Possible Link with Electromagnetic Radiation


During recent decades, there has been a marked decline of the house sparrow

(Passer domesticus) population in the United Kingdom and in several western

European countries. The aims of this study were to determine whether the population

is also declining in Spain and to evaluate the hypothesis that electromagnetic

radiation (microwaves) from phone antennae is correlated with the decline in the

sparrow population.

Between October 2002 and May 2006, point transect sampling was performed

at 30 points during 40 visits to Valladolid, Spain. At each point, we carried out

counts of sparrows and measured the mean electric field strength (radiofrequencies

and microwaves: 1MHz-3GHz range). Significant declines (P=0.0037) were

observed in the mean bird density over time, and significantly low bird density was

observed in areas with high electric field strength. The logarithmic regression of

the mean bird density vs. field strength groups (considering field strength in 0.1V/m

increments) was R = -087 [1]P = 00001


The results of this article support the hypothesis that electromagnetic signals

are associated with the observed decline in the sparrow population. We conclude

that electromagnetic pollution may be responsible, either by itself or in combination

with other factors, for the observed decline of the species in European cities during

recent years. The appearently strong dependence between bird density and field

strength according to this work could be used for a more controlled study to test

the hypothesis.